ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY ON CODE SWITCHING 9
AnnotatedBibliography on Code Switching
Bydefinition, code-switching involves using two or more languages in asingle conversation. It is a much used phenomenon by most peoplearound the world, despite its complexity and variability.Code-switching has been a topic of interest for many researchers,thus the subject has been adequately researched. The capability ofspeakers to code-switch in a single dialogue has been a key focus ofmany studies and has been thoroughly described through conversationalanalysis, as well as by ethnographic linguistics and interactionalsociolinguistics.
Thestudy of code-switching comprises of interactions among bilingualadults in informal contexts as well as between bilingual school goingchildren in formal contexts for instance, schools. Besides, studieshave also been carried in foreign and second language classrooms.
Currentliterature conducted on code-switching in classroom settings hasdemonstrated its different roles in relation to language functionsand social relations. For the latter, code variation was employed asa communicative resource to achieve diverse social functions. Theseinclude, expressing solidarity, lessening social distance in order tocreate relationship that result in friendships, while at the sametime negotiating diverse identities. Other studies have analyzedconversation between students and tutors and how teachers code-switchwhile teaching.
Forthe purpose of such studies, data is generally obtained by way ofobservation or interviews from bilingual populations in differentsettings and from foreign language classrooms, particularly English.Thecurrent paper has provided an annotated bibliography of five journalarticles. In particular, it has provided the summary of the articles,data used as well as actual findings. This would be helpful and wouldplay a great role while doing my own research on the topic.
Bahous,R. N., Nabhani, M. B. & Bacha, N. N. (2014) Code-switching inhigher education in a multilingual environment: a Lebaneseexploratory study. LanguageAwareness,23(4): 353-368, DOI: 10.1080/09658416.2013.828735
Intheir article, Bahous, Nabhani & Bacha have investigated facultyand students’ perceptions regarding code switching (CS) in highereducation. The research, which was conducted in a multilingualsetting in the classrooms in an American-medium institution inLebanon, particularly aimed at exploring the when, why as well as howthe students and faculty code-switch in a classroom. While CS hasbeen studied in both written and spoken language in differentmultilingual backgrounds, none has been conducted in Lebanon.
Accordingto research, CS between languages in oral communication is common inmultilingual settings and is employed for different purposes. Inrecent times, it has attracted much attention and has been shown tohave a negative influence in the use of language and learning amongstudents.
Forthe authors, the motivation to carry out the research emanated fromthe need to understand how people shift and combine languages togenerate meaning understood by others thus, can respond to the same.Besides, CS stirs up interest that inspires researchers to study itfor its own advantage.
Bahous,Nabhani & Bacha have incorporated a range of past researcheswhich demonstrate that CS is an occurrence that impacts people inbilingual communities. Most of the researches have compared diversemultilingual and bilingual communities while interacting and findinggroup identity expressions. In CS, orators use over one language inone communication event.
Byobtaining data from faculty and students through non-participantobservations, un-structured interviews and questionnaires, theauthors were able to raise awareness regarding the use of language inmultilingual settings. Their study indicated that in a Lebanese classcontext, CS occurs between Colloquial Arabic and English, thelanguages of instruction. Mostly, it relies on the subject beingdiscussed by the communicators. According to the findings, facultiesare not aware that they usually code-switch while teaching, and thiscontradicts what the students and non-participant observations said. On the other hand, students CS in order to learn better.
Themain weakness in this study is that it was limited to a singleuniversity. In future, the author’s research methods should be usedin different academic levels ranging from elementary to university,diversities among age, gender disciplines, as well as comparisonswith other academic institutions using other languages apart fromEnglish and Arabic. The approach used by Bahous, Nabhani & Bachawould be helpful and is a good example that I can follow whileconducting my own research.
Lipski,J. M. (2014). Spanish-English code-switching among low-fluencybilinguals: Towards an expanded typology. SOLS,8(1): 23–55, doi : 10.1558/sols.v8i1.23
Inhis study, Lipski has focused on language mixing generated bysemi-fluent bilinguals who try to speak monolingually in their secondlanguage. The research demonstrates that such a circumstancefrequently leads to structural interference from the mainstreamlanguage. In addition to that, code-switching could result ininfrequent lexical insertions. While mixing languages in an attemptto speak in one language implies that a single structural pattern ispresent alongside lexical items from the weaker and strongerlanguages.
Accordingto the study, in low-fluency language mixing, sections generated inboth languages generally do not infringe syntactic constraints. Suchdevelop out of Minimalism and other models, where syntacticstructures are estimated from the lexicon. The author shows that inlow-fluency language mixing, for instance switching functionalclasses such as subject pronouns, propositions or compound verbs, mayactually mirror the superiority of one language or lexicon over theother.
Thestudy has used and compared two sets of data: The first one has beenobtained from fluent bilingual Spanish-English code switchers fromthe United States while the second one has been gathered fromlow-fluency Spanish heritage speakers. Similar to Muysken (2000)proposition, the current research has recommended that the aspect ofcongruent lexicalization to be developed to encompass involuntarycode-mixing amongst semi-fluent bilinguals.
Studyfindings imply that low-fluency language mixing among non-balancedbilinguals forced to communicate in their weaker languages maygenerate different combinations in terms of qualitative andquantitative aspects compared to code-switching that take place amongbalanced bilinguals who are fluent in their language.
Indetermining the specific correlation between language dominance andnon-constituent congruent lexicalization, the study proposes thatfurther research should be conducted on low-fluency language mixingamong adults who are non-balanced bilinguals.
Lehti-Eklund,H. (2012). Code-switching to first language in repair – A resourcefor students’ problem solving in a foreign language classroom.InternationalJournal of Bilingualism,17(2) 132–152, DOI: 10.1177/1367006912441416
Lehti-Eklund(2012) article has described and analyzed how code-switching (CS)that is deemed as a local practice, is employed during instructionand learning of Swedish, which is a foreign language (FL). Accordingto the study, in a foreign language classroom setting, both theteachers and students collectively generate practices used inlanguages. For instance, they communicate institutional identitiesand context into being. In particular, the study has focused on thepractice of the preference of a particular language in repair.Indeed, students are likely to maintain a separation of labourbetween FL employed for institutional work and L1 as a languagepreserved for communication. Lehti-Eklund has discussed the state oflearning repair in an FL classroom setting.
Asindicated by literature, learning is a deepening procedure ofinvolvement in an area of practice. Gaining knowledge of a languagein a classroom setting is considered as a continuing modification inthe use of language, which is achieved by participating incollaborative work. Therefore, studying code-witching and languagevariation, among other activities, which the teachers and studentstake part in results in an understanding of language in an FLclassroom environment.
Datahas been obtained through video recordings during a teaching lessonamong students in second grade. These students have been learningSwedish for five years. The findings of the study support previousresearches done in diverse school contexts. They indicate thatstudents have a likelihood of maintaining labour division between L1and FL. Basically, the methodical generation of repair cycles in L1mirrors the understanding of students of FL classroom communication.The approach used by Lehti-Eklund will be helpful while conducting myown research.
Unamuno,V. (2008). Multilingual switch in peer classroom interaction.Linguisticsand Education,19: 1–19.
Thecurrent paper has examined the interactions which take place betweenten to twelve year old language apprentices of immigrant backgroundand local students. The two groups, which engage in oral pair work,attend language lessons in public primary schools based in Barcelona.The official language is Catalan foreign language is English, whilestudents use Spanish as the general language of communication.
Forthe purpose of this study, Unamuno has examined transcriptions ofrecorded communications between the two pairs. The author hasanalyzed the role of Spanish and Catalan code-switching (CS) in aclass setting whereby students are learning English and Catalan.
Accordingto the study findings, alternating languages plays a key role inaddressing practical problems associated with management as well asthe completion of the allocated pair assignments. The authors putforth that even though CS is a resource accessible by students inmultilingual background, the non-implied and implied languageguidelines in the classroom are inseparable from the study ofswitches that occur among multilingual as well as plurilingualcompetency. The study has highlighted the importance ofdecentralizing competency acquirement in one target language, whichis mostly seen in monolingual practices but rather, focus on theacquisition that occurs in multilingual interactions.
Inthe current field of research, the study findings are significant asthey demonstrate the movement of resources as well as theirflexibility. This is the manner in which apprentices may communicateand use the linguistic resources accessible to conduct a certainactivity.
Therefore,the interactive contexts recommended to learners are vital componentswhich help them comprehend the employment of other languages asimportant aspects towards the study of language. Further researchshould focus on the effect of implicit language guidelines inclassroom. This implies that exploring language management in aclassroom could help in comprehending the manner in which CS leads tothe acquirement of second language, as well as in developingplurilingual competences.
Liang,X. (2006). Identity and Language Functions: High School ChineseImmigrant Students` Code-Switching Dilemmas in ESL Classes. Journalof Language, Identity & Education,5:2, 143-167, DOI: 10.1207/s15327701jlie0502_3
Inhis study, Liang (2006) has explored code-switching (CS) with respectto individual as well as group identity. Besides, the author hasinvestigated the functional employment of two languages. The researchhas examined the manner in which Chinese Migrant high school studentsview the use of second language (L2) and first language (L1) in theclassroom, as well as how they use them in group activities.
Forthe purpose of this study, data was obtained by way of interviews andobservation. On one hand, data gathered by way of interview indicatesthat the participants had manifold and conflicting views regardingthe use of L1 and L2. On the other hand, observation datademonstrates that CS in a bilingual classroom setting was associatedwith impasses for the students. They did not seem contented aboutinteracting using the Chinese Language while carrying out groupactivities. Rather, they gave the impression of wanting to useEnglish. Apparently, the incongruous feelings regarding the use ofL1 and L2 are an indication of intricacy of bilingual classroom CS.
Further,study findings show that during group work, students speak aconsiderable amount of Chinese. According to discourse analysis, theChinese language was mostly employed to assist students gainknowledge of the English language.
Asrecommended by the author, bilingual CS should not be deemed as asign of inadequacy in second language. Instead, it should be deemedas a vital element to the range of communicative resources forstudents in a classroom setting.