Astudy in this domain approaches Language as a contextual and setphenomenon and explores it as a data driven and interdisciplinaryway. The main focus of the study is on larger units of discourse asboth patterned and structured language use and also as a form ofsocial action. Language as the discourse has many problems and couldnot have been sufficiently formulated without the remarkableadvancements of modern linguistics. In the cratylus, Plato hadalready presented that the difficulty of the ‘truth’ of secludedwords or names must remain unresolved because naming does not use thepower or the use of speaking. The same hitch recurs in the mostadvanced works of Plato such as the ‘theaetetus and the Sophist’i.He was compelled to conclude that a word on its own is neither truenor false, and a combination of words may hold nothing yet meansomething.
Interms of modern linguistics, the setback of discourse has become afrequent problem because discourse can now be conflicting to acontrary term, which was not acknowledged by the ancientphilosophers. Therefore, here language is more than the capacity tospeak or competence speaking. It labels the particular structure ofthe specific linguistic system. Within the words, ‘system’ and’structure’ a new challenge emerges which tends to postpone if notcancel the discourse problem. Discourse is fated to decline from theforefront of concern and develop to a residual problem. The mainadvancements in linguistics concerning language as system andstructure and not as used are the reason discourse remains tricky forus todayii.Our duty will, therefore, be to free discourse from its precariousand marginal exile.
‘Nolonger bound’ illustrates how sermonic discourse affected andinfluenced racism among the white and the blacks through theirpreachings. Martin Luther King, Jr in a letter from Birmingham cityjail said he wondered who the God of white people is when he walkedpast their churches spiraling towards heaven. The steeples are a signthat the church and religious beliefs and practices of Christiansiii.It’s a clue that the folks who inhabit that sanctuary and believethat their doctrines, rituals, and spiritual practices are alignedwith the will of God as manifested in their practice of thescripture. This observation was intended to cause those in whitechurches to compare the scripture to the actions and beliefs. It wasa result of the frustrations with oppression and injustice. Hecriticized the black churches for the messages was too accepting ofthe then situation, calling them ‘a tail light.` This meant thatthe black churches were too inactive on the issue of injustice andoppression.
PeterOchs in his book (Peirce, pragmatism and logic of scripture) saysthat preaching in a Black church is a form of continuous correctionthat over time becomes normative. Black preaching has been made intwo contexts: in a macrocosmic community of hatred and indifferenceand a microcosmic community of love and care. Black preachers beingcaught in the two realities of the two contexts, they use scriptureas a curative of both with a focus on the black community. Thisdilemma called Du Boisian has led to the rational sermonic discoursefrom slavery to the present.
Thereare texts in the Scripture that reflect the bias against Blacks,women and the poor, and they demand a corrective readingiv.In early American slavery and how women were called and used by theirmasters. Today Black women are still struggling to endure thecondition that negates them of self-determination.
Forbiddenword is a legal word that has been prohibited by official order or byan enactment. The word nigger in America is a vile scornful slangphrase for a Black person. It adopted from the Spanish word Negro forblack in the mid-eighteenth century. In America, it has been used todescribe persons of African descent. This word in (Adventures ofHuckleberry Finn) was used many times that it has fueled a debate onif Mark Twain was a racist4. The NAACP called on the banning of filmsand books from schools and libraries.
Thedilemma for the Americans has been racing since 1619, and for nearly150 years after the civil war the discussion has gone underground.Election of the fast African American president and the jabberingcontroversy surrounding the mistaken arrest of a Black professor fromHarvard are some of the racial controversies. All these racialdiscriminations have fail to arouse a national open-minded andserious public dialog of the race. The debate about race in Americais forbidden as the phrase ‘nigger’. Hurricane Katrina’s powerto depict how Americans still have the opinion that Blacks areinvisible. It’s devastating effect over millions of Black peopleand poor white folks unable to flee the ruins of the storm and theneglect from the local, state and federal government. They weremostly Blacks compelled by the chains of irrelevance from the FederalEmergency Management Agencyv.
Thehurricane’s agony was perceived in the pain and anguish on thefaces of Black people who were bewildered, some worn by the water andwind. Hopelessness and desolation had overwhelmed them in the cycloneof whirling the wind and collapsing duties. The old, the poor, thesick were mainly black people.
Joband the Excess of Evil
Excessof Evil according to Philippe Nemo is a measure of the oldness of theproblem of evil by a standard that surpass philosophy. In the oldtestament Job in the book of Job demonstrates to us that evil cannotbe matched to any world, any sense of cosmic order, any divinity, anylaws. Evil is unsanctified, and God remains the unjustified. Job onmany occasions utters of Gods failure, and he blames God as the oneresponsible for not bearing him to the grave. He is aware of Godsrole in his plight and doesn’t discuss it much in his deathimagery. He focuses on Gods activities against him or Gods inactionswhen action is required. The excess of evil does ruin the world,nonetheless not in harmony to reveal another worldvi.Evil outdoes the law of the world and destroys the order of things.
Thefriends were accountable to job in terms of the healing with animportance on practice. Practice that view the world as directlytransparent and makes a claim to universal, joined knowledge andunderstanding.
i Interpretation Theory
ii Interpretation Theory
iv No Longer Bound
v Forbidden Word
vi Job and the excess of evil
Harris, J, Henry. Forbidden Word. Virginia, Pa: Cascade and Stork Publishers, 2012.
Harris, J, Henry. No longer bound. Oregon, Pa: Cascade and Stock publishers, 2013.
Nemo, P., & Lévinas, E Job and the excess of evil. Pittsburgh, Pa: Duquesne University Press, 1998.
Ricoeur, P. Interpretation Theory. Texas, Pa: Texas Christian university press, 1976.