BUSINESS ETHICS IN BUSINESS AND SOCIETY 22
THE FIFA CORRUPTION SCANDAL
Corruption is a major ethical problem affecting most businesses allover the world. It refers to the abuse of public authority forpersonal gains. Corruption describes behaviors that involve“bid-rigging, embezzlement, bribery, nepotism, extortion,protection rackets, fraud, patronage, larceny and graft” (Schwartz,2015). Many businesses engage in corruption in order to boost theirbusinesses, increase their prominence or make deals with influentialpersons, oblivious of the harms to business. According to Schwartz(2015), corruption resembles a virus that affects everyone and eachsector of society. These include administrations, religion, learninginstitutions and most importantly business.
Many prominent organizations have faced corruption allegations. Mostrecent is the FIFA corruption scandal, which is the basis for thispaper. Using the scandal, this paper explores if corruption inbusiness results in more benefits or problems for society. Businessesmight become corrupt due to the predicted benefits of for instance,giving or taking a bribe. However, it is important to question ifsuch acts benefit or harm the business and stakeholders in the longrun.
Reason for choosing the problem statement
Corruption is a major trend in most businesses. Many leaders believethat by engaging in corrupt dealing they benefit their organizations.This is true when argued on the basis that corruption in deed helpsorganizations to secure deals they may never have, buy property andbecome recognized among other reasons. If any form of corruption doesnot become exposed, then there can never be any issues emerging toaffect a corrupt business. However, in most cases when anorganization becomes corrupt, such corrupt activities are alwaysexposed eventually. Considering that, many businesses worldwideengage in corruption, the reason for choosing the statement problemis to determine whether “the ends justify the means”. That is ifthe benefits gained from being corrupt justifies giving or takingbribes, fraud and other forms of corruption. In addition, isdetermining is corruption results in more gains or disadvantages forbusiness.
Situation analysis – The research begins by describing thesituation. In this case, the situation is widespread corruption bybusinesses all over the world, which has become a norm. Such a trendmakes the topic important. Using the FIFA scandal, the paperdemonstrates how organizations become corrupt. It then explains whyFIFA officials took bribes from other countries with the objective ofdetermining if there was a justification for corruption. At thispoint, research explores the countries giving bribes to determine whythey participate in corruption, what they stand to gain and ifcorruption benefits or harms the countries. This section is in fourpages.
Stakeholder perspective – After describing the situation, the paperdetermines the stakeholders involved in the problem. Stakeholders areeither directly or indirectly involved. The first step is to list anddescribe all the stakeholder groups. Stakeholders have differentperspectives concerning widespread corruption in organizations. Thereare those who may justify corruption, while others are againstcorruption. The paper will describe the perspectives of allstakeholder groups in the FIFA corruption scandal. Evidence in theform of the stakeholder’s reactions to FIFA’s corruption, makesit possible to analyze whether there was justification for engagingin corruption. This involves analyzing whether what countries linkedto the FIFA scandal gained, justified their participation incorruption. Analysis of the stakeholder perspective applies thestakeholder theory. The section will be five pages.
Leadership perspective – the leaders are at the forefront ofbusinesses engaging in corruption. They either influence anorganization to become corrupt or shun away from corruption. Whenleaders are corrupt, they form a trend that is quickly picked up byother employees in the company. A perfect illustration is the FIFAscandal. The officials are responsible for taking bribes from leadersin other countries. Most people feel that when a business becomescorrupt, then leadership is the problem. Thus, any solutions mustderive from the leadership. Some of the leadership solutions aredrastic, like firing all corrupt leaders, while others can be lessstern, like issuing warning against future participation incorruption. This section of the paper determines the alternative andsuggested solutions for leadership. That is what leadership needs todo, management actions and a timeframe for implementing thesolutions. The section will be four pages.
The justifications for corruption derive from the benefitsbusinesses anticipate to gain. In the FIFA scandal, leaders fromcountries that give bribes to FIFA officials use it as an opportunityto host sports. FIFA officials on the other hand, suppose that theyare doing these countries a favor, because without the officialshelp, they might never get an opportunity to host the sports. Thissection of the paper describes personal views on what actionsleadership should take following a corruption scandal. In addition,the paper describes the steps government should take in dealing withcorruption in businesses.
Research has mainly focused on the demerits of corruption tobusinesses. Hence, the main challenge is finding research materialthat explains the possibility of a business benefiting afterparticipating in corruption. In specific, the challenge will be tofind information that justifies FIFA officials’ action of takingbribes and leaders giving bribes.
Carroll, A. B., & Buchholtz, A.K. (2010). Business& society: Ethics and stakeholder management.Mason, OH: CL-South-Western Cengage Learning.
Panja, T. (2015). FIFA scandal: Coca-cola, McDonald’s say SeppBlatter must go now. Business Day. Retrieved fromhttp://www.smh.com.au/business/media-and-marketing/fifa- scandal-cocacola-mcdonalds-say-sepp-blatter-must-go-now-20151002-gk0fas.html
Schwartz, A. (2015). Workplace ethics: What we can learn from theFIFA scandal. Philadelphia Business Journal, 1-1. Retrievedfrom http://www.bizjournals.com/philadelphia/blog/guest-comment/2015/07/workplace-ethics- what-we-can-learn-from-the-fifa.html
Corruption in business
The World Bank defines corruption as behavior by officials inprivate or public sectors that involves illegally and inappropriatelyenriching themselves and their associates, through misuse of power(Carroll& Buchholtz,2010). It ispracticed in different forms, some insignificant while others aremajor. In support of corruption is the argument that it is importantfor profit when doing business, everyone is engaging in corruption,it is accepted in most nations, and corruption acts as a kind ofcompensation or commission for doing business (Carroll& Buchholtz,2010). Argumentsagainst corruption include the fact that corruption is illegal, it isunethical by compelling people to compromise their beliefs, itdeceives stockholders and passes the costs to consumers, and thereceivers are the only beneficiaries (Carroll& Buchholtz,2010). In light ofthese arguments, the dilemma is if by businesses becoming corruptthey benefit or causes harm to society. The FIFA scandal demonstratesthat though there may be instant benefits of corruption to partiesinvolved, the long lasting effects are detrimental to business andsociety.
FIFA corruption scandal
FIFA, the “Federation Internationale de Football Association” hasbeen on the headlines owing to corruption allegations amongst theassociation’s leaders. The world’s main soccer body has been thesubject of investigations concerning accusations that rigged votingprocedures, bribing and kickbacks assisted in determining former andyet-to-be host nations of the world cup. The world cup has been apopular sport event globally and nations compete to host the event.The association has been entangled in corruption allegations sincethe American justice department indicted its members in May. Thesemembers include top officials. Swiss officials at the same timestarted their investigations to determine the process used indeclaring Russia as the 2018 world cup host country and Qatar as thehost in 2022. The investigations resulted in Sepp Blatter, FIFA’spresident, resignation as well as holding of the 2026 biddingprocedure (Anderson, 2015). Corruption is widespread in FIFA, andowing to the recent scandal, many would argue that it has been thenorm for decades as the organization withheld its monopoly inregulating the globe’s most famous game, football.
The scandal brings to light many issues related to corruption. Thereis a possibility that a number of FIFA’s officials justify theiractions because they are assisting nations that may not otherwise getthe opportunity to host the game. Hence, by taking bribes, some kindof good in the sense that the countries giving bribes host the sportdevelops. The world cup is a major sporting event. It provides anopportunity for nations to compete for “the rites of passage intothe soccer hall of fame, bragging rights for their country as well aswhile competition is happening, set aside differences between twocountries outside of the arena” (Taylor, 2015). This justifies whymany countries would give bribes to FIFA officials in order to getvotes in support of hosting the event.
On the other hand, the impacts of FIFA officials engaging incorruption on society are clear. In the political sense, corruptionis an impediment to democracy. Economic wise, it results in thedepletion of a nation’s wealth, frequently diverting the wealth tothe pockets of corrupt leaders. In addition, corruption leads to animbalance in how business is conducted making it possible for thecorrupt to succeed, while those that are not corrupt fail. Corruptionis deceiving by supposing that what is on offer or offered lacksnegative consequences. However, corruption results in decision makingfor the wrong motives, and awarding of contracts happens due tokickbacks instead of best value to society (Kemp, 2014).
Trends in business and society
Corruption in international business progresses to be an overarchingissue. The recent FIFA corruption scandal is just a reflection of howbusiness is done in many countries. Schwartz (2015) comparescorruption to natural climate in most places. He argues that it hasan effect on all segments of society and acts as the glue that joinsmany nations. Further, some economists argue that corruption impedesdevelopment. Yet, some highly corrupt nations like China continue toexperience impressive economic development, despite the fact that“nearly everything has a price in China” (Schwartz, 2015). Thisdemonstrates that most organizations tend to consider corruption asimportant for business, a perception that is fast becoming the norm.
It might also be the contributor in FIFA’s corruption because theorganization has for decades engaged in corrupt dealings. The currentscandal has resulted in new evidence of corruption by formerofficials from the organization. For instance, Jack Warner, a formervice president to the organization was indefinitely suspended in 2011due to bribery. It is alleged that he took a ten million dollarsbribe in exchange for awarding South Africa the chance to host worldcup in 2010, an opportunity that should have been awarded to Morocco(Anderson, 2015). Following his suspension, Warner threatened toprovide evidence that would confirm how corruption has been rampantwithin FIFA’s top management. More evidence of corruption derivesfrom Chuck Blazer’s, a FIFA official, decision to plead guilty totaking bribes (Anderson, 2015).
FIFA is an internationally influential organization. It attractsglobal participation in sports and viewership. Its participation incorruption can only communicate that it is okay for businesses to becorrupt. This is because despite being corrupt the organization hascontinued to grow. It creates the impression those businesses thatchoose to be ethical feel helpless, whereas the corrupt one thrives.As a result, the notion of success via corruption becomes tolerable,contrary to achievement via trading ethically. Such emerging trendsin business and society make the topic of corruption significant. Byconducting research on corruption in business, people are able toweigh the benefits over the demerits. In the end, organizationsrealize that corruption is simply disadvantageous and that theyshould practice business ethics.
Reasons for choosing the topic
Corruption is an ethical dilemma, which affects all sectors ofsociety. It has become an accepted behavior in most countries. As aresult, many organizations feel that they must engage in corruptionin order to become successful. I have chosen the topic corruption inbusiness, using the FIFA scandal as a case study, in order todemonstrate that corruption causes harm to society. Regrettably, mostof the organizations that are corrupt are highly influential, likeFIFA. Such companies should be acting as role models for smaller orupcoming businesses, yet they help in instilling unethical conduct.Another reason for selecting the topic is to demonstrate thatalthough there are arguments in support of corruption, the supposedbenefits of corruption result in demerits.
Stakeholders and their Perspective
According to the stakeholder theory, stakeholders refer toindividuals or groups having the ability to affect or be affected byan organization. Hence, FIFA’s stakeholders groups comprise ofindividuals that contribute to the success and those that benefitfrom the organization.
Sponsors – it is the ability to access supporters to whom they sell their products that encourage sponsors to support FIFA
Coca-cola is one of FIFA’s main sponsors. As a multinational,Coca-cola has become a household name for many years. The company hasmanaged to do business in almost all countries. Coca-cola also has arecord of sponsoring organization involved in the development ofsociety. Hence, it is only befitting that they are FIFA’s sponsors.Soccer is progressively becoming a sport that unites people from allnations. By Coca-cola sponsoring FIFA, they aim at increasing theirpopularity while at the same time demonstrate their corporate socialresponsibility. The company’s drinks are sold to sports supporters,and coke-branded billboards are positioned in stadiums during sportevents.
McDonalds is another top sponsor. The company’s sponsorship isthrough donation of funds to FIFA. McDonalds operates in the foodindustry and stands to benefit largely from sporting events. Assports become more popular, it is able to connect people fromdifferent parts of the world. By McDonald sponsoring FIFA, thecompany becomes associated with the sport and their products becomepopular as well.
UNICEF is a non-profit organization, which aims at promoting peaceand fairness to different global regions. UNICEF supportsorganizations that bring people together. FIFA is one suchorganization that has managed to bring people together throughsports. When the relationship amid FIFA and UNICEF was formed, theyworked together under the motto “Unite for Children Unite forPeace”. UNICEF sponsors FIFA because the organization, throughsports, is able to promote UNICEF’s agenda of promoting peace. Thename UNICEF is visible in the jerseys won by players and childrenthat walk out with athletes prior to the start of a football match.
Visa is an international financial organization. It is obvious thatVisa sponsors FIFA from their advertisements, which clearly declarethem“official sponsors of FIFA/World Cup”. Most of the financialoperations by FIFA are facilitated through Visa. Both organizationshave been working together for many years all through the world cupsand different FIFA activities. Visa sponsor FIFA because the companygains from the proceeds of transactions related to sport activities.As the sport continues to become popular, Visa continues to make moremoney through financial transactions. FIFA as well benefits fromVisa’s promotions that market football worldwide.
The media is a stakeholder because FIFA uses the media to broadcastand advertise its sporting activities. FIFA depends on the media toincrease its popularity. It sells media coverage package deals tobroadcasting channels that include Telemundo and Fox among others. It is through the media that people from all parts of the world getan opportunity to watch live football events. Otherwise, the sportwould be restricted to viewers from the host nations and those thatmanage to buy tickets to stadiums. Still they would need the media toknow where to buy tickets, when the games begin and where they takeplace. The media stands to benefits a lot from FIFA throughbroadcasting the sporting activities.
Supporters are the lifeblood of any sporting activity. Withoutsupporters then it would be impossible to host and have sportingevents meaning FIFA cannot exist. They purchase tickets to footballmatches, they watch sporting events through the media, and they buyproducts from sponsors. Supporters on the other hand depend on FIFAin order to enjoy, participate in and watch sports events.
Governments in host nations
Governments of host nations are stakeholders because FIFA depends onthem in order to have a place to host the world cup. The reasonsgovernments of host nations agree to host the world cup, is that theyare able to market their country to the world. Host nations benefitfrom FIFA through increased popularity in the world and revenue fromsupporters.
Citizens of host nations
The civilians of countries that host world cup and other sportsevents by FIFA are stakeholders because they stand to benefit whentheir countries become hosts. Some of these benefits include thelifetime opportunity to watch football live.
The perspective of stakeholders is important because they are theones affected by FIFA’s corruption. The stakeholder theory notesthat organizations have a social responsibility, which mandates themto pay consideration to the interests of all individuals or groupsthat, are affected by the decisions they make. Thus, it is importantto analyze the stakeholders’ perspectives in the FIFA scandal. Byanalyzing the perspectives, it becomes possible to detect thenegative or if any positive influence that corruption has had on thestakeholders and FIFA.
Sponsors – the sponsors have demonstrated their disappointment withFIFA. According to McDonalds, “the events of recent weeks havecontinued to diminish the reputation of FIFA” (Panja, 2015).Considering that these sponsors are associated with the organization,any tarnish on FIFA will as well affect them. As a result, Coca-cola,Visa and McDonald’s have asked FIFA’s president to resign fromgoverning the organization. The sponsors are as linked with FIFA asthey are with the sport. By attempting to capture the interest andloyalty of millions of supporters in all parts of the world, theybecome associated with an organization viewed in the western world asa breeding ground of corruption (Springman, 2011). Hence, thesponsors’ perspective is clear. They consent that corruption is badfor business and the organization needs serious reform.
Governments in host nations – countries that host the world cupbenefit socially and culturally. The world cup brings in millions ofpeople from other countries to the host. As these people spend onentertainment, accommodation, transport and food, the countrybenefits from revenue obtained through tourism. Another reason whygovernments are interested in hosting sporting events is to portraythemselves to the world as vibrant. The host country gains globalawareness. Hosting the world cup also acts as an opportunity toimprove infrastructure. This is possible through preparations for theworld cup that entails upgrading, beautifying and making changes toseveral public infrastructures, like transportation. Theconsequentialist approach notes that the ethicality of an action isjudged by the consequences. Using the approach, hosting the world cupis deemed ethical when it results in positive aftermaths. Anygovernments’ decision to host the world cup derives from theexpectation that certain benefits will be achieved. Hence, thisprobably explains why governments’ give bribes to FIFA officials.It is through the bribes that they get the opportunity to becomehosts and in turn benefit the country.
Citizens of host nations – in order to explain the citizens’perspective, this paper will use the illustration of Brazil. Brazilwas the 2014 world cup host. Although the then president accepted tohost the event, the civilians have expressed dissatisfaction with thedecision. According to Mitra (2014), “sixty-one percent of theBrazilian adults were against Brazil hosting the event”. Inaddition, there were numerous protests prior to the world cup ascivilians demanded for more investment in healthcare, publictransportation and education instead of preparation for the FIFAsports. A lot of taxpayer’s money amounting to billions wasinvested in the building of stadiums. The total figure of stadiumsconstructed was twelve. Five towns constructed new stadiums, whileone stadium was destroyed and rebuilt in order to meet FIFA’sspecifications, and other stadiums were renovated.
Most residents feel that the government wasted a lot of money inpreparing for the world cup. Notably, corruption was also widespreadduring these preparations as more money than the budgeted was used.The citizens feel that although the government may have supposed thatby hosting the event there would have been positive consequences, theaftermath was mostly negative. Considering that Brazil’sopportunity to host the 2014 world cup is also linked to corruptionamong FIFA’s officials, then the impact of organizationalcorruption can only result in negative effects. Brazil continues toexperience these negative effects. Some of the stadiums constructedwill probably never be used again for such a tournament. At the sametime, more pressing needs, like health care and education, continueto be neglected.
Based on the FIFA corruption scandal and stakeholders’perspective, it is clear that when businesses are corrupt it resultsin more harm than good to society. Governments that bribe FIFAofficials in order to host world cup anticipate that the opportunitywill increase their countries popularity and generate more money fromtourism. Although these are positive impacts on the countries, thenegative impacts outweigh the positive ones. Governments waste toomuch money preparing for the sports, money that is better invested inthe country’s development. Such form of corruption creates theimpression in society that organizations have to be corrupt in orderto succeed.
Football is well recognized in most nations. This explains why it isimportant to have an organization such as FIFA that makes it possiblefor civilians to enjoy the sport. When the organization appointsofficials to be in charge of sporting activities, the public expectsthat the officials act ethically. Acting ethically involves doingwhat benefits and results in the growth of soccer. However, it isdiscouraging to realize that an organization that has received somuch public trust has been engaged in corruption for years. Researchdemonstrates that corruption in FIFA has been a continuing behaviorin their usual operations as well as business (Taylor, 2015). Ethicalleaders must allow appropriate business behaviors. The case of FIFAillustrates an organization that allowed corruption to thrive becausenone of the leaders stood up to ensure business was ethical.
The first step that management should take is administrativereforms. FIFA has a flawed leadership as top officials have been atthe forefront in engaging in corruption. This means that making anychanges while such officials’ progress to be influential in theorganization, will be unsuccessful. Such efforts have already beenrealized following the stepping down of Sepp Blatter from FIFAtogether with his associates. At present Blatter is on suspension.However, it would be advisable for management to dismiss him and theother officials that face allegations from global sport. This willensure that they are not able to bring back their corrupt cultureonce reinstated. Another important administrative reform should focuson the appointment of top officials. Sponsors have influencedappointments to leadership positions in the past. For instance,“Coca-cola has had a long history as one of FIFA’s top sponsorsand a relationship with Blatter that goes back 40 years (Panja,2015).” Such influence impedes with transparency. To ensuretransparency it is necessary to create a new team that will be incharge of FIFA elections. The team must comprise of individuals notaffiliated to the organization. Such reforms promote transparencywithin the organization and ensure the appointment of ethical leadersthat promote ethical behavior in the organization.
Another action management should take is to divide responsibilities.This involves ensuring that there is an apparent division of dutiesfrom top level to most junior positions. The division is especiallycrucial within top level of the organization. It should be clear whois responsible for running the board as well as the organization’sbusiness. Currently, it is clear that within FIFA there are officialsthat have more power compared to others. For instance, Sepp Blatterhas been acting as FIFA’s CEO and chair. These powers areunfettered, meaning that it is not possible to question the decisionsthat he makes. With such leadership, it is only possible thatcorruption prevails within the organization. By dividingresponsibilities, no official will have more authority than theothers will. In addition, is guaranteeing that decision making by theorganization is collective and not based on the ideals of a specificperson.
Management should abolish the democratic voting process. FIFA has208 members. Each member is given an opportunity to vote for thecountry that will host the world cup. It may seem as a democraticvoting process. However, the widespread culture of corruption makesthe voting process questionable. There has been an increase inAfrican nations that have joined FIFA. Most of these nations dependon funds from FIFA to fund their youth programs. These needy nationsare more likely to vote as directed by FIFA officials as has beenwitnessed by Blatter’s act of vote buying. Since the nations do notwant to lose funds given to them by FIFA, they must vote asinstructed. Hence, the democratic process ceases to exist. Suchcorruption was exposed following the contested chance to host worldcup awarded to Qatar and Russia. Instead of the supposed democraticprocess, management needs to employ an independent audit group. Thegroup will be in charge of overseeing FIFA’s election, and ensurethat the process is indeed democratic.
FIFA should introduce term limits. Term limits refer to restrictionsto the period an official can serve in the organization. Currently,there are no term limits. This means that once elected, officials cantake up positions for years, as Blatter has been in the presidencyposition for decades (Bush, 2015). As a result, a leader is able toinstill their values in the organization for years. For instance, ifa leader is corrupt and stays for long in an organization, then theircorrupt ideals become instilled within the organization. Leaders havea very important role of influencing their subordinates. A corruptleader will most likely influence the same behavior among otheremployees. With time, the subordinates learn that corruption is theway of doing business. However, with term limits, when a leader isrealized to be corrupt, once their term is up they leave theorganization after which, then it becomes possible to introduceethics through a new leader.
Management needs to change how FIFA works from a privateorganization to one that is public. As a private institution, anorganization is not subject to public scrutiny. Hence, its leadershold control over the actions of the organization. This makes itdifficult to hold officials accountable especially those that havebeen associated with corruption. FIFA prefers to work as a closedorganization to the outside world. For instance, when the senior vicepresident was asked by media from Britain about the corruptionallegations, Julio Grondono “asked that the FIFA family be leftalone (Rummenigge, n.d).” A similar response was given by SeppBlatter when asked about the organization’s ethics he said, “Iwill not go into discussions with people that like to create problems(Rummenigge, n.d).” Such responses raise questions about theprivate operations of the organization. When an organization actsprivately, it disregards the need to be publicly accountable. Hence,making a change towards making the organization public will enhanceaccountability towards stakeholders. This in turn reduces corruptionbecause of public scrutiny.
The FIFA corruption scandal is an important case when evaluating theethical dilemma on whether corruption in business can result to anypositive gains or the aftermath is always negative. My view is thatcorruption harms both business and society. Stakeholders feel theimpact of corruption especially taxpayers whose money is used inbribes instead of developing their country’s infrastructure.
When an organization is exposed for alleged corruption, then itbecomes crucial that management and leadership make changes. I wouldsuggested the same leadership as those discussed under the leadershipperspective section. All through Blatter’s leadership, which begunin 1998, numerous corruption allegations have been raised. Blatterhas as well made remarks resulting in the questioning of hisleadership. FIFA holds an exceptional position when compared to otherorganizations. The organization is a monopoly and is in charge offootball, a major sporting event. Despite being in charge of a sportthat brings together countries all over the world, leadership in FIFAhas been unaccountable. With these issues in mind, it is onlyrecommendable that administrative reforms, division ofresponsibilities, term limits, changes to the voting system andpublic governance are introduced in the company.
Regrettably, in the case of FIFA, some governments have aided in thecorruption. I think that governments must demonstrate accountabilitytowards the wellbeing of their civilians. They should be at theforefront to stop corruption by not showing a commitment to work withorganizations that are corrupt. When an organization is alleged to becorrupt, government should suspend their business and pave way forinvestigations. Governments should implement programs that make itpossible to scrutinize how private entities operate. This will pushfor accountability in both private and public companies.
The FIFA scandal acts as an opportunity for organizations to reflecton their ethics. Regardless of the level of leadership, leaders mustdemonstrate responsibility for what happens in the organization. Ithink many leaders are not accountable, which explains the widespreadcorruption in most companies. As a result, corruption has become thenorm of doing business. When corruption becomes a norm, society isaffected in numerous ways. Ethics no longer becomes important whendoing business. In addition, new entrepreneurs understand that inorder to succeed they must engage in corruption. On such basis,corruption becomes beneficial for the corrupt, while those thatchoose not to be corrupt do not prosper. Corruption in business is anethical dilemma because it is continuously becoming difficult forbusinesses to trade ethically. When corruption becomes toowidespread, it becomes a part of society. Issues like accountabilityand ethical behavior seize to exist in business and society. Themarket becomes unfair, as competition is driven by who can pay morefor this or that, who can pay more to do business with so and so.Organizations need to realize that in the long term, corruption willtarnish their business.
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