Case Studies Analysis on the functionality and Response of Neurons in Human Body Body

CaseStudies Analysis on the functionality and Response of Neurons inHuman Body

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Task

CaseStudies Analysis on the functionality and Response of Neurons inHuman Body

Casestudy one

WhenAmy touches the hot burner of the stove, she withdraws her hand fromthe heat the danger receptors are stimulated around the skin toalerts the brain to take a withdrawal action. This triggers a sensoryimpulse that travels very fast to her central nervous system thatsends a motor impulse that makes the flexors initiate withdrawal ofthe hand from the hot burner. Consequently, the danger receptor,which is also referred to as nociceptor is stimulated to cause thewithdrawal. The receptor is an afferent neuron because the signaltravels through the sensory nerves to the posterior end of therecipient’s spinal cord. For Amy to withdrawal the hand, theinformation in the receptor neuron is sent through the sensorynervous system where a nerve synapse that work very closely with theipsilateral motor neurons in the anterior part of the spinal cordthat makes the injured finger to move away from the danger within theshortest time possible (Erikssonet al., 1998).

Onthe same hand, two types of neurons are responsible when Amy iswithdrawing her hand from the hot burner these include sensoryneurons and the motor neurons. Here, the sensory neuron collaborateswith the motor neuron (Ipsilateral ) that synapses together with themotor neuron in recipient’s contralateral anterior part of thespinal cord. The motor neuron is responsible for stabilizing theuninjured part of the body when Amy is moving the hand. The reasonfor having this body system is because the sensory neuron is the onethat sends signal to the spinal cord to initiate the motor neuronsthat initiates contraction of the hand muscles that move the body’scenter of the gravity to achieve a balance thus a withdrawal reflexalso referred to as crossed extension reflex.If we do not havethis response, then a person experiencing a danger such as burningwithout noticing since the withdrawal reflex cannot happen.

Casestudy two

Glenis a 45-year-old man who is diagnosed with early-onset Parkinson’sdisease. Early onset Parkinson’s disease is a condition thatmanifests with a chronic progressive neurological problem thataffects the patient’s nerve cells (Kaplan Writing Center, 2013).The cells that are affected are the neurons around the brain areareferred to as the substantia nigra (Bertucci,Teive, &amp Werneck, 2007).The disease presents motor problems such as slowed movement, tremor,and rigidity due to problems in the fine motor movements.

Onthe other hand, dopamine is chemical transmitter (neurotransmitter)in the human body whose effect is to transmit signals in vital areasof the body such as the brain. Dopamine is present both in animalsand humans. The synapse is an association or union that shows theconnection between a neuron and a muscle or neuron and a neuron.Dopamine is used to transmit electrochemical communicationestablished between a neuron and a neuron or between a neuron and amuscle. The structure of the synapse includes three elements namelypresynaptic membrane, the postsynaptic membrane, and the spaceexisting between the two structures referred to as synaptic cleft.Glen can be prescribed as dopamine agonist because the early onsetParkinson’s disease can be as a result of disconnected synapticsystem this hinders efficient transmission of signals that aid inmovement thus causing tremor and slowed movement. Additionally,because Glen is suffering from early onset Parkinson’s disease, itis advisable to have his three kids tested genetically to determinewhether they have the disease. This is because early onsetParkinson’s disease is a hereditary disease that can be passed fromone generation to the other.

Casestudy three

Patriciais a 37 old female who has experienced symptoms that related tomultiple sclerosis (MS). After multiple tests that includedneurological tests Patricia was diagnosed with MS (Kaplan WritingCenter, 2013). Multiple sclerosis is a condition that results inprolonged disease that affect the spinal cord, brain, and the opticnerves in the human eyes thus causing blurred vision, body imbalance,and lack of muscle control and related basic functions in the body.As a result, the Multiple Sclerosis is a disease of the peripheralnervous system that occurs when one’s immune system attack thefatty layer in the nerve fibers called myelin (Gilden,2005). This means that the myelin cells are the ones affected making thenerves be damaged causing scars on the tissue.

Thepotential actions of the neuron in the multiple sclerosis areaffected by the damaged tissues. Because is because damage hindersthe brain from sending signals to other parts of the body correctly.Additionally, the nerves do not work as required to aid in bodymovement and feels. This results in symptoms such as trouble inwalking, fatigue, blurred or sometimes double vision, and muscleweakness. Lastly, the origin of the MS is not clearly known.However, scientists assert that MS can result in individuals withcertain genes. Additionally, behaviors such as smoking can result incontracting MS. Moreover, scientists claim that viral infections suchas Epstein-Barr virus that is known to cause weak to completelynon-functional immune system lead to MS. This is because the viralinfection triggers relapse in the nerves thus hindering functionalityof the body parts. However, most of the scientists are trying tofind out the connection between viruses and MS.

Reference

BertucciFilho, D., Teive, H. A., &amp Werneck, L. C. (2007). Early-onsetParkinson`s disease and depression. Arquivosde neuro-psiquiatria,65(1),5-10.

Eriksson,J., Bongenhielm, U., Kidd, E., Matthews, B., &amp Fried, K. (1998).Distribution of P2X 3 receptors in the rat trigeminal ganglion afterinferior alveolar nerve injury. Neuroscienceletters,254(1),37-40.

Gilden,D. H. (2005). Infectious causes of multiple sclerosis. TheLancet Neurology,4(3),195-202.

KaplanWriting Center. (2013). Case Study Analysis. Retrieved fromhttps://kucampus.kaplan.edu/MyStudies/AcademicSupportCenter/WritingCenter/WritingReferenceLibrary/GraduateStudentWritingResource/CaseStudyAnalysis.aspx