TheMiddle East is historically referred to as the mother of innovationsand inventions. It is believed that renowned empires extended itsboundary, and most dominant and influence resulted from the MiddleEast and Egypt. As a result, innovation, economic development andpolitical factors determined the success of these empires. All theevents of the world are somehow shaped by the events that took placein the empires of the Middle East and Egypt. Civilizations can betraced back to the Babylonians and kingdoms of Egypt while the regionboasts as the home of three major religions namely Christianity,Islam and Judaism. The events that happened in the Middle East andthe Egyptian kingdom influences influence the world social, politicaland economic order to the present. Christopher Catherwood attempts toshow how the leading to the decline of these empires affected theworld order to the present (Catherwood, 2006).

TheMiddle East have been ruled by various kingdom each coming into playat different times during the history of the world. Catherwoodclearly explains how the Sumerians, Hittites, Phoenicians, Assyrians,as well as the ancient Babylonians came in charge of the region. Thehistory of the Middle East goes on to 2006. A comprehensive of theorigin of different aspects of the present order such as Islam, theCouncil of Nicaea, Jesus, the Bible and Abraham among other emanated.The subject of Muslim and the way the religion developed into theSunni-Shia divide is discussed among other things jihad, and theeventual arrival of the Turks.

Thebattle of Manzikert in 1071 near Lake Van saw a defeat of theByzantines by the Seljuk Turks. In 1242, there were the Crusades andthe Mongol incursion. Later there was the rise of Ottoman Empirewhich ruled the region and its expansion to Balkans, Asia and theAfrican continent. The empire failed later following poor managementand leadership in the vast kingdom. The Middle East Khalifate Empirewas probably the last lasting kingdom that was followed byindependence for various countries. Still this was never the end, thecountries of Europe and America by this time had undergone industrialdevelopment and, therefore, had an extensive political and wealthinfluence in the world. It is the various purported of the Europeancountries in the oil-rich nations of the Middle East that led to thefirst and second Gulf war. Israel was never to be until 1922 when itthe Jews were given the country at its present locations. However,the influence of the Israeli ignited the heightened Israeli-Palestinewar that is still at contention to the present (Fahmy, 1997).

Whenthe Middle East empires declined and divided so much with numerousreligious, border and economic differences, the countries of Europeand the United States came into the limelight. Presently, America isviewed as the power that has an indirect influence on the Middle Eastgovernance. As a result, the Middle East resistance and incursionhave brought the problems of terrorism and radicalization. Manycountries in the Middle East are against the Israeli governmentexistence and while to eliminate it from the current location. The9/11 terror attack incident in New York on the world business Centreis a repercussion of the chain of events that led to the decline ofthe empires of the Middle East. Religion schism has brought a bigdivision between the east and the west nations (Fahmy, 1997).


KhaledFahmy pages,All the Pashas Men(1997) 38-75

ChristopherCatherwood, A Brief History of the Middle East: From Abraham toArafat 2006 pages 135-153