Deductive Reasoning



Thefollowing argument is selected:

Abortionkills a human being, therefore abortion is wrong.

Inthis argument the provided conclusion ‘thereforeabortion is wrong’is not valid because there is a missing premise to make it a validconclusion. There is a need for a qualification of an importantaspect of human being. Usually when constructing a deductivereasoning or argument, the argument will be considered valid only ifit takes a form that makes it impossible for the premises to be trueand the given conclusion consequently to be false (McAdoo, 2014).Under this form the deductive reasoning is termed invalid. Theargument to be valid also must have premises that are true otherwisethe argument will be termed unsound.

Tomake this argument valid and sound another premise must beincorporated, for that case the argument will be in this form:

Humansare important beings.

Abortionkills a human being.

Thereforeabortion is wrong.

Insertingthe premise ‘Humansare important’qualifies the argument to be considered valid and sound. Thisdeductive argument now has two premises which are true, and providesjustification for the conclusion. The first premise ‘humansare important beings’underline the quality of human being as important and the premise initself is true. The second premise ‘Abortionkills a human being’highlights abortion as a threat to human life and consequentlyabortion kills a human being. This premise is true because abortiondoes kill a human being. The conclusion ‘Thereforeabortion is wrong’is logically true with regard to the two premises. It is justified toterm the practice of undertaking abortion as wrong because it kills ahuman being who is an important creation. Therefore, this argument isvalid because the truth provided for in the premises logicallyguarantees the truth provided for in the conclusion (McAdoo, 2014).

References,.(2015). ProfessionalEthics | Philosophy. Retrieved 15 October 2015,from

Arguments,B. (2015). BuildingLogical Arguments – For Dummies. Retrieved 15 October2015,from

McAdoo,O. (2014). AS Critical Thinking for AQA. Hoboken: Taylor and Francis.