Diabetes and Drug Treatment


Diabetesand Drug Treatment

Question1: The Differences between Type 1, Type 2, Gestational and JuvenileDiabetes

Diabetesis a condition comprised of several metabolic diseases resulting tohigh blood sugar. Diabetes mellitus, the common name of the conditioncan arise if the body produces inadequate insulin or the body cellsfail to respond to insulin or a combination of the two (LaureateEducation, Inc, 2012). Type 1 diabetes occurs when the pancreasgenerates no insulin at all. Research by Arcangelo and Peterson,point out that diabetes type 1 is more of a genetic condition ratherthan a lifestyle condition (2013). Unlike type 1 diabetes, type 2diabetes is mainly found in older and ageing people, hence referredto as adult-onset diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is more prevalentaccounting for almost 90% of all cases of diabetes worldwide. Thedifference between type 1 and 2 diabetes is that in type 2, thepancreas produces inadequate insulin, or the body cells fail to useproperly the produced insulin (Laureate Education, Inc, 2012).

Asthe name suggest, Juvenile diabetes mainly occurs in children.Juvenile diabetes is the other name for type 1 diabetes since itaffects young people below the age of twenty.Accordingto Arcagendo and Peterson (2013), white children are at a higher riskof developing juvenile diabetes compared to African-American. Thosehaving juvenile diabetes experience difficulties in making insulin,an indication that their bodies do not have the abilities to make useof the sugar required for energy production (Glaser,2006).Generally, children diagnosed with this kind of diabetes at an earlyage live long, healthy lives since their blood sugar is constantlymanaged within the preferred range

Type2 is considered a lifestyle disease associated with unhealthy eatinghabits leading to overweight (Peterson, et al. 2007). Despite thefact that it is associated with old age, recently many children aregetting diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. The trend has been attributedto unhealthy eating habits and lack of physical exercise. Gestationaldiabetes is a condition that some pregnant women (almost 4%) developduring the second trimester. The cause of gestational diabetes ishigh levels of blood glucose and inadequate production of insulinduring pregnancy. However, unlike the other two types of diabetes,this type of diabetes disappears after the birth of the newborn. Theinsufficient insulin cannot transport the blood glucose efficientlyleading to high levels of blood sugar (Laureate Education, Inc.2012).

Question2: Type 1 diabetes

Sincethe primary cause of type 1 diabetes is the lack of insulin in theblood, the main treatment is an intake of insulin. According toLaureate Education, Inc, there are two main types of insulin,Rapid-acting and Long-acting insulin (2012). There are variousfactors that pharmaceuticals put under consideration beforeadministering drugs (Arcangelo and Peterson, 2013). Insulin cannot betaken orally because stomach enzymes impede with its operations.Therefore, it can be administered either through injections or aninsulin pump. Thirty minutes after administering regular insulin, ameal should be taken. Using a fine needle, syringe or insulin pen,the drug is injected into the body. Areas such as the abdominal wall,upper arm, thigh and buttocks are some of the injection sites.However, the injection should be rotated within the same region.Administration of some insulin such as regular insulin can be doneintravenously.

Similarto type 2, insulin dosage in type 1 diabetes is individualized foreach patient (Peterson, e al. 2007). A mixture of long-lastinginsulin such as Lantusand rapid-acting insulin for instance Humalogare used in injections. Three or more injection per day has proved tobe effective in managing blood sugar levels. An insulin pump is adevice worn on the outside, made up of a tube that connects theinsulin reservoir to a catheter placed under the skin, mainly theabdomen. The pump is automated to release exact amounts ofrapid-acting insulin. The steady dose of insulin released by the pumpis referred to as the basal rate.. Similar to treatment of multiplesclerosis, long-term administration of insulin may develop intoresistance in some patients hence the need to increase dosage(Kargiotis, et al. 2010). In terms of diet, it is important for aperson with diabetes type 1 to focus on a healthy diet, low in fatsand rich in fiber foods.

Dietand physical exercise are important factors to be considered intreatment of type 1 diabetes. According to Peterson et al. (2007),the main goal for any nutrition prescription during treatment of type1 diabetes is to maintain as near level of glucose in the blood aspossible. Treatment of type 1 diabetes by insulin therapy takes intocount dietary consideration, which is tailored to meet anindividual’s diet requirements. The recommended diet for peoplewith type 1 diabetes should be low in fats and have the correctamounts of sugar to avoid overwhelming the pancreatic system(Laureate Education, Inc. 2012). The carbohydrates should bewell-balanced with other nutrients to supply sufficient calories forachieving and maintaining a healthy body mass, standard growth anddevelopment.

Question3: Short-term and long-terms impact of type 1 diabetes and effects ofits treatment

AccordingtoLaureateEducation, Inc, (2012), type 1 diabetes can adversely affect majorbody organs such as the heart, nerves and kidneys. Short-term effectsmainly occur when the level of blood sugar falls too low or becomeselevated to hinder the normal functions of the body. One of theshort-term impacts of diabetes type 1 is high blood sugar, acondition referred to as hyperglycemia. Blood sugar can get high dueto various reasons such as eating wrong kinds of foods orinsufficient insulin uptake, especially when under treatment withinsulin injections. On the other hand, the blood sugar may fall toolow resulting in a condition referred to as hypoglycemia. Anothereffect of diabetes type 1 is a condition known as ketoacidosis. Thisis the increase of ketones in the urine as a result lack of energyfor normal operations of the body cell. As a consequence, the bodybreaks down the body fat, producing toxic acids in the urines calledketones. Ketoacidosis is a serious emergency that can belife-threatening.

Accordingto Peterson and others, long-term complications of type 1 diabetesdevelop gradually over time and eventually can become fatal (2007).Some of diabetes type 1 effects include:

  • High risks of developing cardiovascular problems

  • Neuropathy- High blood sugar damage of blood capillaries that feed the nerve system.

  • Kidney damage

  • Eye damage

  • Foot damage

  • Skin and mouth conditions


Arcangelo,V. P., &amp Peterson, A. M. (Eds.). (2013). Pharmacotherapeutics foradvanced practice: A practical approach(3rd ed.). Ambler, PA: Lippincott Williams &amp Wilkins

Glaser,J. (2006). JuvenileDiabetes.Capstone. Available at


Kargiotis,O., Paschali, A., Messinis, L., &amp Papathanasopoulos, P. (2010).Quality of life in multiple sclerosis: Effects of current treatmentoptions. InternationalReview of Psychiatry,22(1), 67–82.&nbsp

LaureateEducation, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2012). The endocrinesystem and diabetes. Baltimore,MD: Author.

LaureateEducation, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2012). Advancedpharmacology – Mid- course review.Baltimore, MD: Author.Peterson,K., Silverstein, J., Kaufman, F., &amp Warren-Boulton, E. (2007).Management of type 2 diabetes in youth: An update.American Family Physician,76(5), 658–664.&nbsp