TypeII Mellitus is a health condition typified by high bloodsugar levels in the body due to insulin resistance or low levels ofinsulin. The condition is caused by both genetic and lifestylefactors. Other factors include age and medical history. Lifestylefactors such as poor diet, stress, urbanization and poorparticipation in physical activities are the main contributors of thecondition.Today, people are adopting unhealthy behaviors such as alcoholdrinking, smoking and poor dietary choices. Ordinarily,the lifestyle adopted by an individual affects the condition of thebody in terms body mass, weight, and general health of the body. Highintake of sugary foods and processed fats increases body that affectsthe rate of metabolism. Organic pollutants due to urbanization arealso seen to catalyze the condition. The lifestyle contributors ofthe disease can be controlled (Leslie,et al, 2012).Women are increasingly dying out of the disease. The article critiqueseeks to examine the barriers that affect the management of diabetesamong women from the minority groups.


Onwudiwe,et al. (2011) seek to examine the perceptions of the patientsregarding the barriers to management of diabetes. The authors notethat the barriers have great influence on the health outcomes of thepatients. The research was conducted from 31 African-Americanpatients. Four focus groups were involved in the exercise with theenrolment done from the BaltimoreCardiovascular Partnership Study.The data collection method involved a questionnaire where theparticipants were to fill information regarding their health status,nutrition, and medication use. The study was a quantitative research.The results from the study indicates that the groups reportedbarriers to self-management of the disease. There was reportedconcerns about poor outcomes for the patients from the minoritygroups. It also came out that opinions, attitudes, and behaviorsregarding the management of diabetes vary amongst individuals.Nonetheless, there exists variations that are reflected on anindividual’s knowledge besides sex and ethnicity. The study showthat lack of information regarding the intervention measurescontributes to poor management of the disease among the minoritygroups. The study concluded that health literacy is instrumental ineradicating the barriers associated with diabetes among the minoritygroups. Being a public concern, diabetes requires appropriateintervention measures. Many studies indicate that there a a generallack of awareness about the disease. Both type 1 and type 2 diabetesrequire distinct intervention measures. Studies indicate that improvehealth literacy will improve health outcoes among the minority women.Awareness will also help reduce the barriers that jeopardise therealisation of positive outcomes.


Itwas also important for the writer to give a case study that wouldhelp link theoretical and practical information. In the discussions,the writer did not give a hypothetical case highlighting the matterunder study. This would have helped in considering the diverseperspectives on the subject matter and how it would enable themedical practitioners make a comprehensive assessment on diabetesmanagement. Overall, the organization of the discussion is aboveaverage. The various implications that are in line with expectedliterature are highlighted. Nonetheless, the study does not haveliterature review or case study to support the information by theresearchers. The strength of the discussion can be attributed to itscomprehensive content. The information gathered by the writer can beused in reinforcing intervention measures for diabetic patients. Theresearch design is clearly defined in research methods with theresearchers adopting the quantitative approach. Looking at theeducational experiences of the researchers, I believe they werequalified to conduct the study. All the researchers have at least adoctorate degree. The article does not give provisions forconfidentiality of the participants. The study has clearly shown thatthe cultural variations have no significant role in creating barriersin the management of diabetes.In other studies, Chesla, Et al (2014) note that the Chinese-Americanwomen are more susceptible to type 1 diabetes compared to men. Theauthors observe that ethnicity and immigrant status influencesdiabetic treatment across gender.

Onwudiwe,et al. (2011)advise patients to remain active in their healthcare and always seekinformation from a physician on possible risk factors for diabetes.The article further reveals that elaborate public health mechanismsthat should involve public and home based care to offer care forpatients. Moreover, there should be a systems approach comprising ofmultiple strategies to undertake the challenges arising from thepatients’ health conditions. The article reveals that the extent ofhealth complications is an important factor in assessing theirsatisfaction of patients and their influence in recommending to otherpeople.


Changingawareness plans have led to different diagnostic practices that couldhave contributed to the increase. With increasing prevalence rates,the authors recommend the government to generate elaborate policiesthat will create awareness about the disease as well as offerpreventive strategies. Women adherence to diabetic management need toworry the policymakers in their quest to improve healthcare outcomes.Further research on the variations amongst gender from the minoritygroups is essential to help in generating appropriate informationabout the barriers.


Chesla,C. A., Kwan, C. M., Chun, K. M., &amp Stryker, L. (2014). GenderDifferences in Factors Related to Management in ChineseAmerican Immigrants. Journalof Nursing Research.

Leslie,D., Lansang, C., Coppack, S., &amp Kennedy, L. (2012). :Clinician`s Desk Reference.Florida: CRC Press.

Onwudiwe,N. C., Mullins, C. D., Winston, R. A., Shaya, F. T., Pradel, F. G.,Laird, A., et al. (2011). Barriers to Self-Management of : AQualitative Study Among Low-Income Minority Diabetics. Ethnicity&amp Disease,21,27-32.