Environment Pollution

EnvironmentPollution

Instituteaffiliate:

AreFarmers and Other Industries Polluting our Waters?

Wateris themostvaluableresourceto a humanbeingfoundnaturallyin theplanetearth.There is nodoubtthatits valuesupersedestheknownpreciouselementssuchas goldsince youcan`t goa daywithout waterbutgoldyoucan gowithout foryears.Besides water,facilitatingdomesticuse,itis alsousefulforotherhumanactivitiessuchas irrigationandfarming,cleaning,andeveryindustrialprocesswatermust be availableto thefunction.Despite peopleacknowledgingthenobleroleof water,manyhumanactivitieshavecontributedto adversewaterpollutionthat is becominga largeproblemthat should be addressed.Theaveragewatercoverage is 70% of theearth’ssurface,andonly3% of itis freshanddrinkable, 75% of that3% is frozenwhich leavesonly1% of waterthat is readilyavailableforconsumption.

Agriculturalpollution,organiccontamination,andthermalpollutionare theprimarysourcesof waterpollution.Advancing meansof agricultureandfarmingis thereasonhumanlivesin such a world.Formanyyears,farmingwasa naturalprocessthat doesnot affectthelandin anyway.Farmerspassedover their landformanygenerations,butitwould remainfertileas ever.However,themodernfarmingpracticeshavecontributedto significant agriculturalpollution(Conway &amp Pretty, 2013). Agricultureis a complexactivitywherecropsandlivestockare balanced,anditis through severalstagestheygothrough thatstemsto agriculturalpollution.To beginwith, pesticides andfertilizeras theearliestsourceof pollutionin modernfarmingpractice.Chemicalsfrom pesticides andfertilizermaketheir wayto watersourceseitherthrough infiltration into thegroundorthrough runoffs.After applicationandspraying, somemixeswith waterandeventuallyseepsinto theground.Andas a result,bothlocalstreamsandothersourcesin thegroundbecomescontaminated(Miller, 1980).

Also,inefficientpracticesof farmingposea significantproblemthat resultin sedimentation anderosion.Theproducedsedimentbuildsup in streams,riversditchesandsurroundingareas.Thedepositcontainssometoxicelementsthat are harmfulwhilethesedimentitself distractsnavigationoraccessto thesource.Livestockhas to be keptproportionalto theavailability of spaceandresourcesthat supportthem comfortably.However,in manycases,livestockis keptin crampedconditionsthat mostlysurviveon artificialelementsanda highratioof stockto spacethat is likelyto causeagriculturalpollutionby wayof erosionandemissions.

Largevolumesof runoffpollutants generallycomefrom pasturesandfirms. All theexcess fertilizersandchemicalsgetinto streamsthat endup in thelakes.Chemicalsandfertilizerin streamscauseeutrophications. Thismeansthewaterwill not be usefulandmoreimportantly, lessfishsurvivesin suchwater.Farming activitieshaveexpandeddue to demandforfoodwith increasingpopulationthroughout theworld.Andthishas ledto cultivationon proneareasof pollutionsuchas riverbanksanddessertsthat exposesoilto runoffs.

Theeffectsof industrialpracticesare liableto thecurrentstateof worldpollutionaffectingtheecosystem. Industriesgenerallyrequirelargeamountsof waterto carryout their workdaily,anda seriesof processesinvolvesheavymetals,radioactivewaste,harmfulchemicalsandorganicsludgecomesin contactswith water.Theyare eitherdumpedinto riversoropenoceans,which eventuallyresultin manysourcesof waterbeingcontaminatedcausingsevereimpactson thehealthof theecosystem. In manyindustrialprocessesandminingoperationsreleasesheavymetalssuchas copper, cadmium, lead,ironandothers that accumulatein waterposinga dangerto bothaquaticlifeandhumanconsumption.PCB’S andDDT is among thecommonbyproducts of industrialprocesses(Ebenstein, 2012). Theyare toxicwastethat ravishesmostof theenvironmental surroundings. Thetwo toxicworksin thesamewayby concentratingfoodchainas theymoveup,andby thetimeitis at thelevel of humansandotheranimals,moreharmwill havebeenrealized.

Oneof theenvironmentaldestructiveindustriesestablishedduring theindustrialrevolutionwasmetalindustryandhas remainedcrucialup to thisday.Steelandironare commonmetalsfoundallover theworldandare majorcomponentsof automobiles,buildings,toolsamong manyappliances.Fortheprocessof makingsteelcomplete,a substantialamountof wateris required.Within theprocess,wateris usedas a cooling agentwhichbecomesheatedby at least20C. Theheatedwaterandanywastepartsof thismetalare washeddown in waterstreamsfrom hourto hour(Nemerow, 5). Anothermajorindustrialpackageis chemicalindustrialization that is responsiblefortheconversionof rawmaterialssuchas minerals,gasses, andoilinto differentproductsusedin manufacturing,agriculture,constructionas wellas dailyconsumptionproducts.Productssuchas plasticsandpolymers are themostcommonmaterialsfoundallover theworld,which is a majorcontributorof over-loading to waterwith a highpercentageof its wasteproductsemittedin watercourses(Marton, 76).

Theenergyindustryhas not beenleftout in its contributionto waterpollution,as ithas increasinglyattractedcrucialrolesto maintainseveralfunctionsof societies.From steampowerthat depends on waterforcooling processestorefining industriesthat createsan abundanceof wasteproducts.Waterisproducedas a primarywasteproductduringchemicalreactionswhich is alsohighlycontaminatedwhencomein contactwith steamwaste.Productionof nuclearfissionalsohas harmfulradioactivewastesthat causeenormouscontaminationof water.

TheSouthwick’s modelsindicatetheimpactof thecontinuationof historicaltrends,which highlights theexponential growthin industrialandpopulationpollution(Southwick, 1998). Thepopulationgrowththat is accompaniedby citiesexpansionhas resultedin increasingin foodpressure,which eventuallyincreasesagriculturalproductionthat has consequencesof largepollutants introducedinto oceans,lakesriversorstreams.Increasingindustrialization is anothermajorcurrenttrendthat sponsors both an increasein thevolumeof pollutants andpollution(Förstner &amp Wittmann, 2012). In otherhand,agricultureandindustrialization are two mega sectorsthattheworldcannot doawaywith despite causingdangerto theentireaquaticecosystem.

Dolanon his sidemaintainsthatpollutionandpopulationpressureare separate anddistinct(Dolan, 1969), buthegivesan optionof tech fixas a rescueto pollution.However,Dolan doesnot looklike consideringotherpossiblesourcesof pollutionwhenheentirelygivescredittechnological advancesto reducepollutionoutput.Mostof thesetechnologicalmethodsdonot providedefinitesolutionshencemajordriversof pollutants should be identifiedanddealtwith at a fundamentalstage.There is nodoubtthat,agriculturalpracticesandindustrialization are two paramountaspectsthat pollutewaterat large.Butto be realistic,populationpressureandcontinuousbetteringlivingstandardsthrough industrialization are thebirthof alltypesof pollution,andthisis thepointthat should be concentrated(Scupin, 2015). Culture,attitude,andlifestyle depend muchon agricultureandindustrialization.

References:

Conway,G. R., &amp Pretty, J. N. (2013). Unwelcomeharvest: agriculture and pollution.

Routledge.

Hoekstra,A. Y., &amp Mekonnen, M. M. (2012). The water footprint of humanity.Proceedingsof

thenational academy of sciences,109(9),3232-3237.

Miller,D. W. (1980). Waste-disposal effects on ground water. PremierPress. Berkeley, Calif.,

(34941),512.

Dolan,E. G. (1971). TANSTAAFL, the economic strategy for environmentalcrisis.

Ebenstein,A. (2012). The consequences of industrialization: evidence from waterpollution and

digestivecancers in China. Reviewof Economics and Statistics,94(1),186-201.

Förstner,U., &amp Wittmann, G. T. (2012). Metalpollution in the aquatic environment.Springer

Science&amp Business Media.

Scupin,R. (2015). Culturalanthropology a global perspective.Pearson.