is an important field of study in anthropology. Ordinarily,anthropology allows researchers to have a broader understanding aboutthe past and present issues about life. In studying the biologicalorganisms, anthropologists identifies how human beings have evolvedto get to the current stage. encompasses the changesexperienced by living organisms regarding their biological traits(Haviland,2013). The traits are passed to next generations. aryprocess results in diversity at various stages to enable an organismadapt to its current environment. The physical environment continuesto change with time hence the living organisms have to adapt to thesechanges to enhance their existence. In the paper, I am going toexamine the four forces of evolution including mutation, naturalselection, genetic drift, and gene flow. The forces are known toresult in the gene variation of an organism hence causing evolution(Haviland,2013).

Discussion:Forces of Revolution


CharlesDarwin first proposed it. Natural selection elucidates the process ofevolution changes that occur on different organisms over time.Organisms are well adapted to survive and reproduce in a givenenvironmental setting. As such, they pass genetic modifications totheir offspring to enable them adapt better in their settings.Organisms that are less fit in the environment are unable to survivehence become extinct. For example, in a group of beetles that aregreen and other brown, the green ones might be eliminated in thepopulation though a predator that feeds on them thus they cannotreproduce anymore especially if only a few remain within a givenenvironmental setting. The process of becoming extinct explains thenatural selection(Haviland, 2013).


Mutationis a form of evolution mechanism that involves the DNA modificationsof an organism. DNA undergoes random changes that make an organismsadopt a different hereditary material of life. Mutation results inthe change in the way an organism behaves, looks, and interacts withother organisms. Considering a group of lice that are exposed toshampoo chemicals, not all die since within the population therethose that are resistant to the chemical. Further, organisms exposedto chemicals undergo genetic modification that changes their reactionto the chemical hence resulting in genetic variation(Haviland et al., 2015).


GeneFlow is a process in evolution theory in which genes are transferredfrom one population to another. Sometimes referred to as migration,gene flow includes varied events that ensure that genes are carriedfrom one given generation to another thus resulting in advantageousgenetic variation within the population. A good example is cornplantation that is wind pollinated. Often, corns will undergocross-pollination hence resulting in an increased genetic variationwithin the population(Haviland, 2013).


GeneticDrift is a process that results in the unpredictable fluctuation ofthe allele frequencies of an organism from one given organisms toanother. Often, it is caused by the sampling error in gametereproduction and fertilization of the organisms in small populations.In a group of beetles that are green and brown, for instance, thegreen ones might be eliminated through random sampling errors henceresulting in reduction in genetic variation within the populationsetting (Haviland,2013).

Isolationand Speciation

Isolationexplains how organisms that are different from other species tend tomove away from their original setting. Such animals evolve to acquirecharacteristics that are different from the original generations.Speciation encompasses the process where organisms diverge to createtwo or more descendants. This can be contributed by ecologicalfactors and interbreeding (Haviland,2013).


explains the change of genes over successive generations. It is animportant field of study that helps human beings to develop solutionsthat are meant to solve their challenges. With sufficient geneticchange, a new species can be made. offers a mechanism toaccount for the diversity of life on earth through a number offorces.


Haviland,W. A. (2013). Theessence of anthropology (3rded).Australia: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.