Gastrointestinal Tract Disorders of Motility

Histamine plays a significant role in production and stimulation ofgastric acid. Gastric acid is secreted by the cells that are in thegastric glands. The cell is called enterochromaffin-like cells (ECL).ECL is developed by endocrine together with the nervous system. Thestimulation of gastric acid is developed in three phases. The fastphase that stimulates gastric acid is the cephalic phase. When anindividual see, smell or even taste any food, the impulses that arein the cerebral outer layer send message to the vagus nerve. As aresult of these impulses, gastric acid is produced and secreted(Kenny, 2011). The second phase is gastric phase, which makes thestomach to send a message to the reflexes. Gastrin is secreted, andthus, the production of gastric acid and stimulation (Vela, 2013). Lastly, is the intestinal phase, which makes the small intestine orin other term the duodenum secretes gastrin, which continues tosecrete gastric acid. The production of gastric acid occurs when thebody cavity cells produce hydrochloric acid.

Gastroesophagealreflux disease (GERD) is the movement of the gastric substance in theesophageal. The disease is common in United States and third of thepopulation have experienced the disease. When one is experiencingGERD, the gastric acid is secreted excessively than the normal way(Vela, 2013. The secretion of excessive gastric acid causes injury tothe esophageal. The excess gastric acid makes the individual toregurgitate and sometimes vomiting. The disease is not so serious andcan be handled by the physician.

When the mucus inthe small intestine decreases and gastric acid increases, the liningof the duodenum that is coated with the mucus causes inflammation.The condition is termed as peptic ulcer disease (PUD), which causesburning in the layer of the small intestine. The gastric acidincreases, and thus, ulcers is experienced which result to pain inthe stomach. Weight loss is experienced and sometimes vomiting occursto the patient. When the level of gastric acid is not balanced in thestomach, an individual suffers from gastritis disorders. If the levelof gastric acid increases or go beyond the level it supposed tomaintain, there is inflammation around the stomach lining.

Gastroesophagealreflux disease (GERD) can be hereditary acquired. About 40% of peoplewho suffer from Gastroesophageal reflux disease are inherited fromparents to the child. A child will inherit the genes from theparents, and thus, there is a possibility of acquiring it from thefamily genealogy. Genetic factors have a strong role in thesusceptibility of the diseases. Women are more susceptible to thedisease than men. Gender as a factor matters a lot since a higherpercentage shows that women experiences heartburn, regurgitation andchest pain than men. Gastroesophageal reflux disease is common in thewestern countries especially in the North America and in Europe. Thedisease is not common in South America, Africa and in the Middle Eastcountries. GERD is common to all people and the disease has nospecific age that is more susceptible than the other. Lifestyle hascontributed a lot to the GERD. For example, obesity is attributed bypoor balance of diet, and it can cause GERD.

Additionally, PUD isassociated with genetic factors that contribute greatly to thedisease, and it is inherited from the parents. The disease is commonto both young and older generation. Lifestyle contributes greatly tothe disease based on the food that excretes a lot of acid in thebody. PUD is common in the western countries especially in theUnited States, where the disease affects more than 6 millionindividuals. Gastritis Disorders can be hereditary acquired. Thedisease does not consider any gender or age, but it is associatedwith lifestyle (Herlong, 2013).

Gastroesophagealreflux disease can be diagnosed depending on how frequent heartburnand amount of the acid in the body, but this depends on the behavior,age, genetic and age factors. Regurgitation depends on the abovefactors. The treatment of the disease basing on the factors likegenetic, age, ethnicity and behavior that triggers the disease isadministered by medication that will control the amount of the acidin the body. If the medication fails, then surgery is conducted(Granderath and Kamolz, 2012). The diagnosis of peptic ulcer diseaseis conducted by testing the H. pylori, where blood, breath and stoolare taken to the laboratory. The diagnosis considers the factors likeage, ethnicity, and behavior as well as genetic that may trigger thedisease. Treatment peptic ulcer disease is antibiotics that kill theH. Pylori bacteria (Lamin, n.d.). Medication that will eliminate orblock the acid that accumulates in the body can be administered ifthe first option fails, such as omeprazole and lansoprazole amongothers. Lastly, treatment can be administered by giving the patientantacids that will neutralize all the acid in the stomach, which willgive a solution to stomach pain. The drugs have the side effect likeconstipation and diarrhea. The diagnosis of gastritis disordersstarts with genetic consideration, where an individual may be askedwhether their family has ever experienced gastritis. Blood, stool andbreath samples are taken for H. pylori is testing. The treatment ofgastritis disorders is the same as the one applied to PUD (Herlong,2013). Antacids, acid reducing drugs and acid blocking drugs can beadministered to the patient.


Granderath, F., &amp Kamolz, T. (2012). Gastroesophageal RefluxDisease Principles of Disease, Diagnosis, and Treatment. Vienna:Springer-Verlag/Wien.

Herlong, H. (2013). Digestive disorders: Your annual guide toprevention, diagnosis and treatment. Baltimore, Md.: JohnsHopkins Medicine .

Kenny, S. (2011). The regulation of plasminogen activatorinhibitor-l(PAI-l) and other uPA system members in thegastricepithelium by Helicobacter pylori. University ofLiverpool.

Lamin, C. (n.d.). Psychological factors in peptic ulcer disease asmeasured by the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory.

Vela, M. (2013). Practical manual of gastroesophageal refluxdisease. Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell.