Fromthe text, the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries were times ofpolitical chaos and upheaval in the Atlantic world. Drawing on theidea of Enlightenment thinkers, the movement for the independence inthe Atlantic world began from the revolutionaries` effort toestablish a new government that meets the desires of the people. Alsodistributing faith in motive and universal rights and laws, hence,result to increase of literacy, spread of critical thinking andweakening religious persecution (WTWA, 535)
Theintellectual and political origin of the age of revolution includesrevolution ideas, new ideologies, the rise of nation-states in Europeand the influence of the revolution. Despite it, freedom was not foreveryone. Few people included in a new vision and other were leftout, for example, Isaac Newton, Louis XIV (WTWA, 538). Finally, theHaitian revolution challenged the contradictions in enlightenmentideas. They abolished slavery hence Africans obtained a new nationwithout slavery. On the issue of equality, they declared undividedhuman rights of and the absolute equality for all people (WTWA, 571).
Themajor shift in industrialization was the production of largequantities of material due to the presence of machines peopleshifted from small scale to large scale farming. It also boosted thework of living and working conditions. People engaged more on workthan on other activities (WTWA, 571-574)
Theend of slave trade changed the pattern of global trade in thatpeople were allowed to practice a legitimate trade that looked moreproductive. Compared to slave, hence freedom to slaves changed thepattern of trade and was allowed freely to participate in trade. Whencomes to changes of the industrial revolution to routine and labor,it has brought more demanding work routine and labor not only tofarmers but also to the manufacturer (WTWA, 576). Finally, theradical thinkers and workers had to adopt socialist and communists,liberalism and nationalism, to promote a vision for industrial lobarand society (WTWA, 609-611).
WorldsTogether, Worlds Apart. W.W. Norton, 2013, Provided Reading