Question1: Distinguish between Theory X and Theory Y leaders.
Thereare several aspects that differentiate theory X leaders with theory Yleaders. Theory X leader assumes that workers are not motivated towork and thus dislikes and avoid work and responsibility. Theory Yleader assumes that workers like work, are self motivated and liketaking responsibility. Therefore, while theory X leader will mostprobably adopt an authoritarian leadership style, theory Y leadersadopt participative leadership. Theory X leaders use centralizedcontrol management approach while theory y engages the employees inthe decision making processes. Theory X leader uses performanceappraisal as the basic mechanism and determinant of remuneration andcontrol of the employees. However, although theory Y leader valuesemployee appraisal, rewards and remuneration is not used to enhancehis control over the employees and the organization. Due to theweaknesses of theory X leadership, it is considered to be inferior totheory Y leadership. However, it is applicable in large scaleoperations or when the leader is dealing with unskilled andinexperienced workers. Theory Y leadership is applicable inorganization that seeks to promote the participation of all employeesin decision making processes, especially when dealing withprofessionals and highly experienced workers (Daft & Lane, 2015,Sahin 2012).
Question2: Discuss the ways leaders can set the ethical tone in anorganization
Leadershave a critical role of creating an ethical culture in anorganization by setting an ethical tone. This involves educatingtheir juniors on how things need to be done in the organization. Thefist step in setting an ethical tone in an organization is createdstandards of conducts, which must be written and defines theorganization ethical culture. The standards must be well crafted andconceived to ensure that it is possible to implement effectively(Langlois, 2011). The leader should also take the necessary steps toensure that the ethical standards are acceptable and accessible toall employees as well as the management. The leader will be able toset an ethical tone if the ethical standards are promoted andfollowed by majority in the organization. Also, a leader can setethical tone in an organization by upholding the values and standardsthat are ethical. An unethical leader can not promote an ethicalculture in an organization. This means that leaders have aresponsibility of leading by example and acting as ethical rolemodels (Ferrell, 2014).
Question3: What are the implications of emotional intelligence for leaders?
Emotionalintelligence is very critical for individuals in leadershippositions. It refers to the ability of an individual to deal with hisor her own emotions as well as the emotions of people around him orher. A leader with adequate emotional intelligence has the ability tounderstand how he or she is feeling, the significance of his emotionsto the working group and how his or her feeling can affects hissubordinates. Therefore, emotional intelligence is critical for anysuccessful leader. For example, a leader who shouts and insults histeam when he is stressed is likely to fail compared to a leader whocalmly approaches emotional situations and stays in control. Thereare some critical aspects of emotional intelligence that areessential for success. They include self awareness and selfregulation, social and interpersonal skills, empathy and motivation(Wagner, 2013, Palmer, 2011).
Question4: Discuss the levels of personal moral development
Accordingto Lawrence Kohberg, there are three basic levels of personal moraldevelopment. These broad stages can further be divided into six substages. The first stage is referred to pre-convectional moralitystage and occurs during childhood. This stage is further divided intoreward and punishment stage, where moral and immoral is determined bythe consequences of the action and the exchange stage characterizedby self interest orientation (Shaffer, 2004). The second stage isreferred to as the convectional stage. Adolescent and adults are inthis stage where they can reason in the convectional way anddetermine the morality of their actions depending on the social viewsand expectations. The third stage of moral development is the postconvectional stage or the principled level where individuals followtheir own principles rather that what the society dictates indetermining the morality of their actions (Killen, 2005).
Daft,R. & Lane, P. (2015). Theleadership experience,Stanford, CT: Cengage Learning.
Ferrell,O. (2014). BusinessEthics: Ethical Decision Making & Cases,Stanford, CT: Cengage Learning.
Langlois,L. (2011). Theanatomy of ethical leadership: to lead our organizations in aconscientious and authentic manner.Edmonton : AU Press.
Killen,M. (2005). Handbookof Moral Development,Psychology Press, ISBN 1135619174.
Palmer,B et al (2011). “What are the implications of emotionalintelligence for leaders?” Leadership& Organization Development Journal,22(1):5-10.
Sahin,F. (2012). "The mediating effect of leader-member exchange onthe relationship between Theory X and Y management styles andeffective commitment: A multilevel analysis." Journalof Management and Organization,18(2), 159–174.
Shaffer,D. R. (2004). Socialand Personality Development(5th ed.). Wadsworth Publishing. ISBN 0-534-60700-4.
Wagner,B. (2013). Impactsof Emotional Intelligence on Leadership Effectiveness,http://www.evf.lu.lv/fileadmin/user_upload/lu_portal/projekti/evf/konferences/konference_2013/report/3Session/Wagner.pdf