Literature Reviews




Lookingat the problem in regard to job literacy and financial literacy, theneed for research, which is between the undergrad rates, is among theAfrican American males while accessing financial literacy. Those inhigh debts still fail to create higher rates of graduation in thepopulation of the African American student. The problem is as aresult of job turnover rates, which are in existence (Quinn &ampKeough, 2002). The study is not enough to make an absolute connection(Menke, 1989). The problem resulted in the investigation ofgraduation rates for the African American males in the United States(McNiven, 2008). Looking at it keenly, the problem seeks to beinvestigated with deprivation of finances faring well with theobjective of educating the African American males (Mahoney, 2003) .The paper only shows 19% of the total population age, which isbetween 22 and 29 years (Kenny, 2009).


The second dissertation examines content analysis, which is widelyused for quantitative research study (Kaminsky, 2003). Apart frombeing the only method, the current content analysis applicationsreveal three distinct kinds of application approaches, which include:directed, conventional, or summative (Ross, 2014). The threeapproaches are applied for interpretation of meaning from contentdata text and therefore adhere to the paradigm of naturalism(Johnson, 2010). The main differences between all these approachesare the origins of codes, coding schemes, and the threats oftrustworthiness (Hart, 1998). A summative analysis involvescomparisons and counting, usually of the keywords or the content(Harris &amp Taylor, 2012). This will be followed by the underlyingcontext of interpretations (Golomb &amp Gong, 2005).


Politicaland social views, especially for the incoming students leaning, are aliberal direction (Grbich, 2013). This has seen a shift in them beingmore oriented academically with expectations soaring high and movingin one direction (Flick, 2014). There is also shift in the students’academic with high school behaviors soaring high, impacting studentsand reasoning out on those going to college (Fashola, 2005). Thenumber of those graduating, especially the African Americans, stilllags far behind than that of their fellow white counterparts (Eklund,2008). When compared to over 61%, the rate of graduation students whohad enrolled for four years in college, the rate of the AfricanAmericans is only 39% (Coaar, 2010). Chin (2014) stated that tocomplete a college degree ensured that one was placed with highesteem in the American society.

Fromthe three dissertations, all of them are organized in a manner thatensures a flow of information with statistics placed (Carrillo-Tudela&amp Kaas, 2011). The dissertations are differentiated by aligningits content analysis that ensures their classifications are limitedto primary versus quantitative content analysis methods of providinginformation (Chang et al., 2014). The dissertations are classifiedchronologically (Brown, 2013). The researcher may have chosen theorganizational structure in order to ensure the intended informationis deciphered in was that are easily structured to meet the readersexpectations (Birkhofer, 2011).

Fromthe three dissertations, the common themes include college education,the economy, and race. The themes relate with my dissertation topicin terms of access to financial literacy (Beck &amp Pląskowski,2007). The turnover rates are there, which makes it easy for study onconnection be done through investigation of the African Americanmales in the United States (Ahituv &amp Lerman, 2005).

Inconclusion, the following is a list if authors that took part in thedisertation topics



Hsieh &amp Shannon, 2005

The Relationship between job turnover rates and financial literacy in black ,ales

Franke, R., Hurtado, S., Pryor, J. H., &amp Tran, S. 2011

Numerical data study

Ahituv, A., &amp Lerman, R. I. 2005

Job turnover, wages, and marital stability


Ahituv,A., &amp Lerman, R. I. (2005). Jobturnover, wage rates, and marital stability: How are they related?.Bonn, Germany: IZA.

Beck,M. S., &amp Pląskowski, A. (2007). Crosscorrelation flowmeters: Their design and application.Bristol: Hilger.

Birkhofer,H. (2011). Thefuture of design methodology.London: Springer.

Brown,M. C. (2013). EducatingAfrican American males: Contexts for consideration, possibilities forpractice

Chang,M. J., Sharkness, J., Hurtado, S., &amp Newman, C. B. (May 01,2014). What matters in college for retaining aspiring scientists andengineers from underrepresented racial groups. Journalof Research in Science Teaching, 51, 5,555-580.

Carrillo-Tudela,C., &amp Kaas, L. (2011). Wagedispersion and labor turnover with adverse selection.Munich: Univ., Center for Economic Studies.

Chin,W. C. (2014). Formationtesting: Pressure transient and contamination analysis.

Coaar,A. K., Guner, N., &amp Tybout, J. (2010). FirmDynamics, Job Turnover, and Wage Distributions in an Open Economy.Cambridge, Mass: National Bureau of Economic Research.

Eklund,N. (2008). Howwas your day at school?: Improving dialogue about teacher jobsatisfaction.Minneapolis, Minn: Search Institute Press.

Fashola,O. S. (2005). EducatingAfrican American males: Voices from the field.Thousand Oaks, Calif: Corwin Press.

Flick,U. (2014). Anintroduction to qualitative research.Los Angeles, CA: SAGE.

Grbich,C. (2013). QualitativeData Analysis: An Introduction.London: Sage Publications.

Golomb,S. W., &amp Gong, G. (2005). Signaldesign for good correlation for wireless communication, cryptography,and radar.Cambridge: Camridge University Press.

Hart,C. (1998). Doinga literature review: Releasing the social science researchimagination.London: Sage Publications.

Harris,T., &amp Taylor, G. (2012). RaisingAfrican American males: Strategies and interventions for successfuloutcomes.Lanham: Rowman &amp Littlefield Education.

Ross,W. (2014). MentoringAfrican American Males: A Research Design Comparison Perspective.

Johnson,W. E. (2010). Socialwork with African American males: Health, mental health, and socialpolicy.New York: Oxford University Press.

Kaminsky,K. (2003). Financialliteracy: Introduction to the mathematics of interest, annuities, andinsurance.Lanham, MD: University Press of America.

Kenny,D. A. (2009). Correlationand causality.New York: Wiley.

Mahoney,D. J. (2003). AnOrganizational, Social-Psychological, and Ethical Analysis of SchoolAdministrators` Use of Deception.Lewiston: Edwin Mellen Press.

McNiven,B. (2008). Conciseguide to value investing: How to buy wonderful companies at a fairprice.Richmond: Wrightbooks.

Menke,W. (1989). Geophysicaldata analysis: Discrete inverse theory.San Diego: Academic Press.

Okasaki,C. (1998). Purelyfunctional data structures.Cambridge, U.K: Cambridge University Press.

Quinn,G. P., &amp Keough, M. J. (2002). Experimentaldesign and data analysis for biologists.Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Riggs,H. E. (2007). Understandingthe financial score.San Rafael, Calif.: Morgan &amp Claypool Publishers.

Shontz,P. K., &amp Murray, R. A. (2007). Aday in the life: Career options in library and information science.Westport, Conn: Libraries Unlimited.

Sakho,Y. S. (2006). Contagionand firms` internationalization in Latin America: Evidence fromMexico, Brazil, and Chile.Washington, D.C: World Bank.

Schittkowski,K. (2002). Numericaldata fitting in dynamical systems: A practical introduction withapplications and software.Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Salkind,N. J. (2010). Encyclopediaof research design.Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage.

Williams,J. L. (1970). Theadventures of a freshman.New York: C. Scribner.

Woodward,M. (2014). Epidemiology:Study design and data analysis.