Anewspaper is regarded as a publication that majors in newswriting/reporting, opinions advertisements cartoons, sports news,and television listings. It is to be published daily or weekly. Itinforms its public on what is going on around them. Advancements incomputer technologies have not overridden the importance of thenewspapers. The newspaper has different sections. The front page hasimportant stories. That is the major headline stories. Sports arecovered on the rear pages. The middle section of a newspaper haslifestyle stories, entertainment, and television listings. Newspapershelp shape and articulate the ideas of its readers it influences theideological orientation of its target group [ CITATION Pen15 l 1033 ].
Thetarget audience for a newspaper is the general mass population in avery specific country or international. Online editions target thewhole world. A newspaper is produced by a formal organization thathas the capital, human resources, and technology. The key personnelin the newsroom operate in a hierarchical structure namely, theeditor, assistant editor, senior editorial staff, chief sub-editor,news editor, chief reporter, editorial staff (reporters). The mostinfluential people in the development of a newspaper are the editorsand the reporters. The government also has influence since it setsregulations on how the newspaper should operate [ CITATION Pie01 l 1033 ].
Thenewspaper usually shapes government democracies although there arelimits on the press freedom that is given to publishers. The freedomof expression differs from one country to another. In many countries,there are local customs to be followed when publishing newspapers.The constitutional statement of the definition of press freedomdefines the limits of press freedom. There are areas where the publichas concerns about regulation of newspapers. One area is theintegrity of the government in enforcing press laws. Another is howit deals with matters concerning morals, decency, or public offense,which are sometimes racism, sexism, and violence. The third issuedeals with privacy matters, which range from confidentiality ofinformation issues to intrusion to a person`s private space by thereporters. The other issues are ethics and conduct of the press.These become matters of public concern, but under the conditions offreedom of the press, they do not require regulation. Regarded ascompulsory and formal instructions regarding conduct, structure, orthe media content, regulations cover several areas including therequirement to possess an operating license. The legal system usuallyprovides a vital part of the formal media regulation. The de factolegal requirements that assists regulate the media and newspaperprinting include the prohibition against defamation and libel,telephony, broadcasting, and the other forms of electroniccommunication. In general, the newspaper press in democracies isplaced outside the scope of all direct content regulation.
Mostcountries have designed press councils, which are made of members ofthe press and independent representatives. This Council adjudicateson some issues, but the courts handle the principal issues. Manyissues are solved by the courts and the normal law. The Guardiannewspaper is a daily paper for the British nationals. The Guardianconstitutes an example of a successful newspaper firm. It wasestablished in the year 1821 as a local Newspaper substituting theManchester Observer. Until the year 1959, the paper was referred toas the Manchester Guardian. It has its UK online edition with thewebsite theguardian.com. It also has international websites that arethe Guardian Australia and the Guardian U.S.A. The Guardian is aleading firm in the design as well as publishing industry
Thenewspaper publication is a process. It starts with typesetting. Thecomposing section of the firm obtains the story in an electroniclayout, which has computer text file, which had already beenconverted to typeset codes. In the earlier years, the 1800`s typingwas lain down using hands letter after another. Then there was aninvention of the linotype machine in 1884, which made the processquicker and more efficient.
Moderntechnology has revolutionized the typesetting process by replacingthe Linotype process with a new method known as phototypesetting. Theinitial step in this new technology is transferring the dummy to thenewspaper section of page layout.
Aprinted edition may be proofread and re-adjusted many times by thereporter or copy editor publishing the story just to check for anyerrors. Image transference is the last edition of the page. Theeditor after reading the paper gives permission for publication. Thepage was taken in its computer layout and the moved through the laserbeams in a picture setter apparatus.Then the operator transfers the film to the processor in anotherpaper. He then develops it and adjusts the final look. Thephotographs scanned on another computer and will then be insertedinto the page. Each film’s page is placed into a laser reader,which is a huge facsimile appliance that scans the pages andtransfers the images digitally to the printing sector of the paper.
Themost used method of publishing newspapers is known as web offset.These are the huge blank newsprint sheets that are put on rolls andsometimes weigh over a ton, and goes into the authentic printingpress. The newsprint reels are encumbered from the press room basefloor.Therolls are put and rolled onto a reel stand having three parts. Theinitial reel moves a paper roll up to the Press. The second reel isloaded and standing by to substitute the first roll the moment itruns out. The third reel usually stays empty and standing by to befed with another the moment the first one is nearly over. Every blanknewsprint roll contains a double sided tape at it boundaries. Whenone roll is completed in the press the other one picks automatically(Advameg,Inc., 2015).
Circulationof the newspaper is the quantity of duplicates that are distributedon a single day. It is one of the vital factors applied to set therates for advertising. Circulation is not the same as the number ofcopies sold. This is because some newspapers are disseminated withouta fee or a cost to the reader. The number of people who read thenewspaper is usually higher than the circulation figures owing to thesupposition that a newspaper is normally read by more than a singleindividual. In several countries in the world, independent bodiesaudit circulations. This is to assure the advertisers that aparticular newspaper is the best, or it reaches more people that theothers. In several developed countries, the newspaper circulation ison a downhill trajectory because of the social as well astechnological alterations, such as the accessibility of the newsonline.
Meanwhilein some developing states circulation is escalating because of risingincomes, increase in populations, as well as improved literacylevels. The launch of evening publications has contributed to afairly a new reading pattern, which demonstrates a shift from the oldbelief that the morning was the primary news time. Currently, readersare more probable to read publications during the evening period thanthe morning period. Now it has become precedence on the agenda of themedia houses and can become a major factor in securing futureearnings during these times of change in a digital strategy. Theevening edition gives an extra opportunity to the reader, which doesnot necessarily force him to change his habits. The voluntary changeof the reader’s perspective from morning to evening has proven thatthe evening edition offers a previously unidentified chance for theconsumption of the evening news.
Torespond to the changing times, firms must remain upbeat in thespeedily shifting media business. They must change with the changingtrends, therefore, asserting their stand in the market as well ascontinue delivering the uppermost quality news at the appropriatetime to the readers. Modern publications have changed immensely overa span of a few years. The consumer and reader behaviors have beenvarying at an evenly high pace. In the earlier years, newspapers werecirculated on the same morning of the publications. After thepublications changed and became both physical and digital products,the release times were also affected. Now the media houses haveconsidered release times and have a timely digital release. Thenewspaper product is now finished in the evening and sent to theproduction house and the point when the publication is dispersed tothe digital platforms too.
Thismeans that the publication is delivered to the market immediately thepublishing is done. This creates a whole new outlook in thepublication industry. Although different newspaper firms have startedusing these new methods and produced newspapers in the evening, someof them desist from applying this strategy and will lose on theirmarket share. Newspaper reading habits now show that the number ofpeople reading them from mobile phones and desktops are graduallydecreasing. The numbers of individuals who read them from the tabletsare on the rise. The tablet is a more preferred device to read anewspaper from in the evenings. The launch media industries operate.They have been forced to change the trends in the data. This hasshown that the evening edition has opened a formerly hidden prospectfor evening news reading in the form of publication. If it continueswith this change, the media will greatly influence how this trendmoves given that the evening editions have added considerable changeson how the public views morning publications. The changing habitsshow a good decision taken by the publishing firms. The eveningpublication gives an extra opportunity to the newspaper readerwithout forcing them to change their habits. Therefore, the voluntarychange of the perspective from the readers is rapidly changing.
Inconclusion, this paper presented a discussion on the people,policies, institutions, as well as the technologies that areassociated with the newspaper. The discussion covered the targetaudience for the print media, the policies that affect regulation ofthe media, and example of an institution involved in the operation,and technology that has led to an alteration in the way the media isproduced and subsequently consumed [ CITATION Mic15 l 1033 ].
Advameg,Inc. (2015). Newspaper.Retrieved from http://www.madehow.com/Volume-2/Newspaper.html
Barthel, M. (2015, April 2015). Newspapers Fact Sheet. Retrieved from http://www.journalism.org/2015/04/29/newspapers-fact-sheet/
Fourie, P. J. (2001). Media Studies. Lansdowne, South Africa: Juta Education.
Pennsylvania News media Association. (2015). Legal Definition of a newspaper. Retrieved from Pennsylvania Newsmedia Association: http://panewsmedia.org/legal/legaltopics/definitionnewspaper