Module 3 question 11

Sociology Student’s Name

Globalization is defined as the increasingly worldwide relationshipof individuals, culture as well as economic movement. It commonlyrefers to the global circulation of the manufacture of products andservices, via reducing the impediments to global trade like exportcharges, taxes and import quotas.

The modern trade is associated to the emergence of globalization.During the modern age, widespread growth happened in technology andinfrastructure. As a result, interaction amid countries, exchange ofideas and culture took place. The emergence of globalization is alsoassociated with ancient civilizations. For instance, the trade linksamid the Sumerian civilization with the Indus Valley Civilizationresulted in the establishment of more trade links amid differentnations.

The Islamic era during the medieval period also acts as a significanttime during globalization’s history. It refers to when the Muslimand Jewish traders begun to explore different parts of the world inorder to sell several items. The more people traveled to differentparts of the globe, it resulted to increased communication amidindividuals. Travelers like Vasco Da Gama navigated to differentcountries seeking new nations to set up trade links.

The industrial revolution during the nineteenth era was another majortime in the emergence of globalization. The revolution resulted in anincrease in the amount and quality of goods. In turn, this resultedto more exports and improved trade as well as business relations.Owing to improved goods, many nations all over the world started toconsume products from the European market.

Globalization as is currently defined emerged following the SecondWorld War. This is attributed to increasing trade relations amidcountries and the gaining of independence by major nations such asIndonesia, India, Srilanka and several South American countries. Thecountries established their economic structure and begun to tradeglobally.

Globalization is resulting in the creation of a global culturethrough “growth in world trade and the business activity thataccompanies it, dramatic improvements in telecommunications, ease ofdata storage and transmission, increased facility and opportunity forbusiness and leisure travel and so on” (Bird and Stevens 2003:397). Generally, the forces have resulted in the notion that theworld has become smaller in turn enhancing interdependence. A globalculture is created when goods move causing people to move andexchange ideas hence resulting in cultural changes.

Globalization results in positive and negative impacts. As differentcultures interact they are able to exchange ideas, which results inincreased knowhow. The creation of a global culture is characterizedby the existence of educated people within cultures. During theexchange of ideas people become well informed and conversant aboutglobal issues. As a result, national cultures become stronger as theyadapt new experiences. The experience and success developed fromoperating globally results in self-confidence. An increasedself-assurance makes it possible to overcome challenges.

Notably, globalization also poses a threat to national cultures.The increased development of a global culture means that nationalcultures are likely to become extinct. This is because people aredefecting from their cultures. National cultures provide solutions tosocietal problems, which represent deeply held ideals concerning whatis right in the world. Thus, they comprise of a global idea on howthe world should function. When the global idea becomes threateneddue to the rise in a global culture, the national culture collapses.

Module 4 question 19

Socialization happens when newcomers are prepared on how to belong toan established group. As a result, they begin to think, behave andreact in manners that the group considers apposite. Socialization isinfluenced by many factors, key among them social class. The socialclass of an individual influences the way people act, think and feel.Social class influences the way a child is socialized in numerousways.

Children that come from an upper social class are expected to carrythe family name, its legacy as well as status. As a result, thefamily invests a lot in such a child bearing all costs of theirupbringing. This is achieved through paying for the child’s privateschooling, buying material things or opening up businesses. Childrenare properly prepared to take up adult roles of becoming responsibleand high achievers. Hence, children from upper class families becomeresponsible from an early age.

In the middle class, parents tend to employ reasoning and lessphysical methods of discipline. There is emphasis on conformity towhat others say. Children are socialized into looking forward to thefuture. Parents from the middle class attempt to nurture andencourage the development of their children’s talents via organizedevents. The children gain exposure to diverse languages andexperiences. When preparing children for adult roles, more emphasisis placed on achievement, respect, education, and the ability toassociate with others.

A child that comes from a lower class is deemed as a poor performerand aggressive. This is because “social class membership beginsexerting its influence before birth and continues until death”(Berns 2016: 109). Expectant mothers from the lower class do not feedon diets that improve the intellectual development of a child beforebirth. Additionally, parents from lower class are authoritative,controlling and disciplinary. When preparing children for adultroles, they are taught on the importance of respecting elders and howto survive.

The family is a very significant agent of socialization. Hence, thereare benefits of socializing children in relation to the social classof the family. Using the illustration of socialization from the upperor middle class, a child socialized from this family learns importantlife skills from an early age. The children from an upper classfamily are well aware of their family’s expectations, which pushthem to become responsible in order to take over family businessesand wealth.

There are many important values passed on to a child from theirfamily. For instance, middle class families are individuals that areconcerned about what other people say. A child growing up in such afamily thus develops the ability to relate with other people.Children are encouraged by parents to become achievers as the familynurtures their talents. Social class is important because itencourages the child to work hard and become an achiever.

It might also be harmful to socialize children in line with theirsocial class. This mainly applies to children from low classfamilies. The children have insufficient resources when growing up.Hence, they grow up feeling deprived by their families and society.This explains why children from low class are likely to engage inaggressive behavior and perform poorly in school, in addition todropping out of school. When parents are commanding, children becomesocialized to the similar behavior and end up becoming forceful.

References

Berns, Roberta. 2016. &nbspChild,Family, School, Community: Socialization and Support.Stamford, CT:Cengage Learning.

Bird, Allan and Stevens, Michael J.2003. Toward an Emergent Global Culture and the Effects of Globalization on Obsolescing National Cultures. Journalof International Management 9:395-407.

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