MOTIVATION AND EDUCATION 6
Lowman(1990), in his article PromotingMotivation and Learningpresents different ideas concerning teaching in college and studentmotivation of most important of his article is covering the effectsof extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation and how instructors canencourage students to have intrinsic motivation. According to thearticle, motivation may be enhanced through positive exhortationsfrom an influential leader. The article is of the view that mostinstructors have an assumption that grades are the major if not soleinstruments that stimulate the achievement of students (Lowman,1990). The author suggests that learners can be motivated to learnalmost everything in case they are promised extrinsic rewards thatare sufficient, but the attractions have to be offered indefinitelyfor the motivation to remain. On the other hand, intrinsic interestsare considered slower in motivating new behavior, but usually lastlonger once they take hold. Furthermore, the article argues thattutors that wish to enhance the motivation of their students need tobe concerned about their methods of evaluation. Works of Lowman(1990) is also stressed by Gagné& Deci (2005) article. According to their article, cognitiveevaluation theory provides that external factors like tangiblerewards, surveillance, evaluations, and deadlines diminish feelingsof autonomy and thus undermine intrinsic motivation. Alternatively,some external elements such as offering choice concerning aspects oftask engagement enhance feelings of autonomy and thus increaseintrinsic motivation.
Thesentiments of Lowman (1990) are also echoed by Uguroglu & Walberg(1979) in their article Motivationand Achievement: A Quantitative Synthesis.The article argues that there is a relationship between motivationand education achievement this implies that in case learners aremotivated, they can have high achievement in education. This articlediscusses the correlation that exists amid motivation and educationalachievement. In the article, motivation elements were restricted toacademic, general, or mathematics self-concept, achievementmotivation, and locus of control. On the other hand, achievementoutcome measures entailed achievement and ability tests as well asgrade point indices. According to the article, the experiment carriedout to establish the correlation amid motivation and educationalachievement indicated that Grade level was the only important studentcharacteristic that is achievement and motivation were more highlycorrelated in learners in 1-12 grades (Uguroglu & Walberg, 1979).Through integrating two samples in their study, the authors concludedthat the mean correlation amid motivation and achievement from thesamples of studies in educational literature and psychology is 0.338,which is an indication that motivation measures on average accountsfor approximately 11.4% of the variance in achievement. The articleposits that motivation measures are associated with less variance ineducational attainment on average compared to other factors inlearning that are replicable correlates.
Self-determinationtheory is depicted as critical in the understanding of motivation andeducation achievement. In his article Deciand Ryan`s Self-Determination Theory: A View from the HierarchicalModel of Intrinsic and Extrinsic MotivationVallerand (2000) presented the ideas concerning comparison ofself-determination theory with the hierarchical model of extrinsicand intrinsic motivation. Four chief points are discussed in thearticle importance of the hierarchical arrangement of motivationalprocesses, role of psychological needs in motivation, individualdifferences in needs, and various roles of the need for relatedness.According to the article, the hierarchical model claims that it isimportant to consider motivation from a perspective that ismultidimensional (Vallerand, 2000). The article posits that Deci andRyan argue that objective events may impact motivation andpsychological outcomes. The author posits that study of personaldifferences in psychological needs is critical since it may help ingetting a better grasp of motivational processes.
Theconcept of self-determination theory has also been discussed in thearticle Self-DeterminationTheory and Work Motivation authoredby Gagné& Deci. This article focuses on discussing self-determinationtheory and depicts its relevance to theories of organizationalbehavior this is different from the Vallerand’s article. Accordingto the article, intrinsic motivation entails individuals doing anactivity because they find it interesting and obtain spontaneoussatisfaction from the activity itself. In contrast, extrinsicmotivation requires an instrumentality amid the activity and someseparable outcomes like tangible or verbal rewards, so satisfactionis derived from the extrinsic consequences to which the activityleads rather than deriving satisfaction from the activity itself(Gagné& Deci, 2005). In addition, the article claims thatself-determination theory has an important aspect that argues thatextrinsic motivation may vary in the level to which it is autonomousagainst controlled.
Further,the concept of self-determination theory is also discussed in theFacilitatingOptimal Motivation and Psychological Well-Being Across Life’sDomainsarticle. The article discusses the self-determination theory and howit distinguishes motivation from autonomous and controlledmotivation. According to the article, autonomous motivation predictspersistence as well as adherence and is beneficial for effectiveperformance. The article suggests that self-determination theory hasan assumption that individuals are through nature active andself-motivated, vital and eager, curious and interested in succeedingsince success itself is usually personally satisfying and rewarding(Deci & Ryan, 2008). However, the theory also argues thatindividuals can become alienated as well as mechanized, or passiveand disaffected. Further, the article posits that factors, whichfacilitate internalization of extrinsic motivation, tend to besimilar to those which help in maintaining intrinsic motivation.
Reliabilityof motivational constructs is perceived as an important aspect inunderstanding achievement motivation. The article AssessingAchievement Motivation as a Multi-Faceted Construct: Examining thePsychometric Properties of the Cassidy and Lynn AchievementMotivation Scale articlefocuses on assessing the reliability as well as the factor structureof the Cassidy and Lynn (1989) multi-faceted achievement motivationscale. The article indicates that a confirmatory factor analysisshowed that the seven-factor model did not fit appropriately.According to the article, individuals vary in their motivation towork in the attainment of personal life goals. For instance, in theclassroom, some learners strive for excellence while some acceptmediocrity. The article also claims that different researchers havean opinion that achievement motivation is well represented as amultidimensional construct (Hart et al., 2008). From the article,Cassidy and Lynn (1989) multi-faceted achievement motivation scalepossesses sufficient internal consistency, particularly at thecomposite level. However, despite the scale’s reasonablereliability, its underlying factor structure is still unclear.
Thearticle Comingto Terms with Motivation Constructsalso focuses on motivational constructs and achievement motivation.The article clarifies motivational constructs in predictingachievement behavior, exploration of long-term motivation, anddelineating the role of social processes in motivation. According tothe article, the area of motivation is overwhelmed with a lack ofclear definition of motivational constructs as well as aspecification of their operation within vast theoretical frameworks.The article argues that there is a need to clarify the conditionsunder which motivational constructs can best forecast achievementbehavior. Besides, delineation of the social processes in motivationis also a critical aspect that needs to be considered (Schunk, 2000).
Deci,L.E. & Ryan, M.R. (2008). Facilitating Optimal Motivation andPsychological Well-Being Across Life’s Domains. TheCanadian Psychological Association,Vol. 49 (1), pp. 14-23.
Gagné,M. & Deci, L.E. (2005). Self-Determination Theory and WorkMotivation. Journalof Organizational Behavior,Vol. 26(4), pp. 331-362.
Hart,W.J., Stasson, F.M., Fulcher, H.K. & Mahoney, M.J. (2008).Assessing Achievement Motivation as a Multi-Faceted Construct:Examining the Psychometric Properties of the Cassidy and LynnAchievement Motivation Scale. IndividualDifferences Research,Vol. 6(3), pp. 169-180.
Lowman,J. (1990). Promoting Motivation and Learning. CollegeTeaching,Vol. 38(4), pp. 136-139.
Schunk,H.D. (2000). Coming to Terms with Motivation Constructs. ContemporaryEducational Psychology,25, 116-119.
Uguroglu,E.M. & Walberg, J.H. (1979). Motivation and Achievement: AQuantitative Synthesis. AmericanEducational Research Journal,Vol. 16(4), pp. 375-389.
Vallerand,J.R. (2000). Deci and Ryan`s Self-Determination Theory: A View fromthe Hierarchical Model of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation.PsychologicalInquiry,Vol. 11(4), pp. 312-318.