Origins of Psychology

Originsof Psychology

InstitutionAffiliation

Originsof Psychology

Psychologyattempts to answer the basic question why we behave and think the waywe do. The seven major perspectives of psychology provide an approachto answering this question. This paper is an outline cataloguing themajor perspectives in addition to giving the reader underlyingassumptions made in each perspective.

Psychoanalyticperspective

Thisperspective states that the human personality is motivated and drivenby instinctual psychological forces that are mostly unconscious.These three forces are the ego, superego and the id. This theory wasdeveloped by Sigmund Freud, a neurologist. It has been the mostpopular perspective in psychology for the past century.

BehavioralPerspective

JohnB. Watson developed this theory stating that the human psychologymajorly involves observable behavior. Therefore, the science ofbehavior was majorly based on observable traits and the unconsciousbehavior is merely fictitious.

BiopsychologicalPerspective

Thisbiological perspective states that there is a biological aspect inhuman behavior and thought processing. This includes the biochemistryof neurotransmission, hormones, heritability, genetics and thescience of sensation and perception.

CognitivePerspective

Thisperspective suggests that human behavior emanates from thoughtprocesses and can be controlled by thoughts. Processes such asmemory, language, attitude and beliefs control behavior.

SocioculturalPerspective

Thissuggests that human behavior is determined by social practices,context and pressure, environmental influences, and culturalpractices. Crowd mentality is a good example of this perspective. Ourperspectives are also greatly influenced by those of the authority.

EvolutionaryPerspective

Evolutionaryprocesses are a great influence on human behavior and thoughtprocesses. This behavior is responsible for human adaptation tochanges in the environment to enhance survival.

HumanisticPerspective

Thisperspective rose to counter the pessimistic views promoted by thepsychoanalytic perspective. In this, the human behavior is influencedby creative and productive to adapt to the environment.

Methodsof research in psychology

Method

Purpose

Strengths

Weaknesses

Example

Experimental

They are conducted on a participant in order to give them a situation that looks familiar but still artificially set up.

Putting the participant in an artificially set up situation makes them connect with the natural environment is very sensitive to their in-depth memory.

The researcher deciding where the experiment will take place, the time, who will participate and under what circumstances might give a biased judgment because of preconceptions.

Field experiment

Descriptive

Because of their in-depth nature of investigating a person, a group, an event or a community, a lot of information can be obtained from that method. It also provides rich qualitative data that have very important ecological validity.

It has a great ability to provide information on private lives of patients to understand and assist them overcome their psychological or any illness.

Sigmund Freud’s study of the lives of his patients when treating them.

Correlational

Its purpose is to measure the extent of the relation between two variables. It checks whether a variable relates negatively (negative correlation), positively (positive correlation) or none recorded (zero correlation).

It indicates a relationship that is predictive in nature. This kind of relationship can be exploited in practice.

It cannot be used to infer the causal relationship between one variable and another.

The causal relationship between high electrical utility and a reduction in power on a mild day.

Biological

It studies the relationship between the nervous system and human behavior.

It aids in explaining the relationship between the environment, psychology and behavior.

Thy need carefully conducted behavioral experiments and innovative biotechnical equipment, making this research method expensive and time-consuming.

Studying Parkinson’s disease

References

Sternberg,R., &amp Jordan, J. (Eds.). (2005). Ahandbook of wisdom: Psychological perspectives.Cambridge University Press.