Pharmacology for Endocrine and Musculoskeletal Disorder

Pharmacologyfor Endocrine and Musculoskeletal Disorder

Pharmacologyfor Endocrine and Musculoskeletal Disorder

Rheumaticarthritis refers to an inflammatory disease that normally causes painin the small joints in the patient’s feet and hands. Rheumatoidarthritis is differentiated from the effect of wear and tear becauseit affects the lining of the patient’s joints (Arcangelo &ampPeterson, 2013). Rheumatoid arthritis causes a swelling of thejoints, which culminates on the erosion of bones and deformation ofjoints. Some of the key symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis includetender, swollen joints, firm bumps under the skin of the arm, morningstiffness, fever, and fatigue. The disease also reduces the qualityof life, but not as much as the multiple sclerosis (Arcangelo &ampPeterson, 2013). Rheumatoid arthritis affects the smaller jointsbefore progressing to shoulders, ankles, knees, wrist, hips, andelbows.

Rheumatoidarthritis can be treated using three categories of drugs, but theirprices have increased significantly (, 2015). The first typeof medication is a non-steroid anti-inflammatory medication, whichreduces pain and inflammation (Arcangelo &amp Peterson, 2013). Drugsin this category include naproxen and ibuprofen. The side effectsassociated with NSAIDs include stomach irritation, kidneydysfunction, and heart damage. The second category of drugs issteroids. Corticosteroids (including prednisone) relieve pain andinflammation. The common side effects of steroids used in thetreatment of rheumatoid arthritis include diabetes, weight gain, andthinning of bones. The third category of medication isdisease-modifying anti-rheumatic medicines or drugs. Some of thecommon DMARDs include leflunomide and sulfasalazine. The side effectsof these DMARD drugs include suppression of bone marrow, liverdamage, and infection of the lungs.

Rheumatoidarthritis can be influenced by irresponsible behaviors, including theexcessive consumption of alcohol. Alcoholic products exacerbate theside effects of drugs that are prescribed for the treatment ofarthritis (Sullivan, 2013). For example, consuming alcohol togetherwith DMARD increases the side effect of liver damage. This behavioralso reduces the effectiveness of drugs, in addition to an increasein the severity of side effects. To this end, combining medicationwith the behavioral therapy is an effective measure can reduce theside effects of drugs since the patient will avoid irresponsiblebehavior of abusing alcohol.

Inconclusion, rheumatoid arthritis is a serious inflammatory diseasethat targets the small joints before attacking other parts of thebody, including the hip. The disease can be treated using differenttypes of drugs, but all of them have side effects.


Arcangelo,V. &amp Peterson, A. (2013). Pharmacotherapeuticsfor advanced practice: A practical approach (3rd Ed.).Ambler, PA: Lippincott Williams &amp Wilkins. Having trouble identifying your medications? Try the pillidentifier. October 3, 2015, from

Sullivan,S. (2013). Why alcohol and rheumatoid arthritis don’t mix. EverydayHealth Media LLC.Retrieved October 5, 2015, from