Plate Tectonics


Theserious hazards that commonly affect the coasts include HighMountain ranges giant tsunami waves and highly devastatingearthquakes. The cause is as a result of the movement of the massiveupper part of the earth it grinds, collides or sinks into the hotinterior of the planet. This brings about melting of rocks andcreation of volcanoes. The friction between plates presses up themountain and generate tsunami waves as landslides and rivers sweepthem away.

Originof earth’s oceans

Thetheories of the origin of earth’s oceans includes: The firsttheory explains that the earth was originally formed with water andthe water originated from an outside source. The second theoryenlightens that the earth did not have water at the point offormation and was caused by other sources as a result of hitting theyoung planet. The third theory expresses that the earth surface didnot contain water, since the earth was created before the oceans.

Thefirst theory says that the existing water was caused by cooling ofthe atmospheric surface, as a result of water vapor the water fell tothe earth and filled basins that latter became large, massive oceans.The second theory explains that the earth was originally veryinhospitable place due to density, the geographical separation oflayers caused a huge release of gasses through volcanic activities.The gases then formed the earth’s atmosphere. The third theoryoutlines that, the earth is about 4.5 billion years old while theoceans have existed only 3.8 billion years.

Thefirst theory best clarifies the existing state of today’s nature ofthe earth and best supported by current research.


Thedecline of coral reefs may be a directly or an indirectly effected byhuman activities. The direct effect includes Pollution and impropermethods of fishing such as use of explosives, pouring poisonouschemicals like cyanide and over fishing. The indirect consequence isbased on warming of the seas and additional nutrients. Both act as afertile ground for harmful algae. The algae accumulates on top of thecoral, as a result it blocks the sun, which in essence causes thezooxanthellae to seize from completing the photosynthesis processhence the coral reefs die.

Thedestruction of coral reefs will result to direct effect on climatedue to imbalance in the seas. In addition the corals are a habitat tomany organisms and once removed the organisms will be exposed topredators, this will result to destruction of many organisms. The seais a source of food to millions of people and destruction of thecoral reefs will result to decline in sea food.

Ifpeople were sensitized on the benefits of coral reefs to humanity,they will guard and protect the coral reefs. As research findingseducate us that healthy coral reefs have direct benefits to humanity.They are a habitat to millions varied aquatic species, a source offood to vast populations, income that amounts to billions of dollarsby tourism including a means of job creation to countries all overthe world and a potential source of treatments for most dangerousillnesses.