PSY-255 Personality Psychology (Comparison of Theorist)

PSY-255Personality Psychology (Comparison of Theorist)

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PSY-255Personality Psychology (Comparison of Theorist)

Theorist

Core Tendency (Summarize each theory in one to two sentences)

Core Characteristic (Most important concepts in the theory)

Development

(What do they say about how the person develops in stages or otherwise)

Periphery

(Those who have gone through the stages, what would they look like as an adult)

Freud (Psychoanalytic Theory)

Every individual personality is formed through a conflict of the three human mind structures. These are the ID, Ego, and Superego

The ID is the first part of personality to be developed, and is focused on wants and needs of a person. It doesn’t care about consequences, but rather aims at achieving the desired pleasure, while at the same time avoiding pain.

Then comes the Ego, which is opposite of the first step, the ID. This has its focus on morality and justice, and it uses intellect, Ego acts as the ID controller, as it worked on reality principle and not pleasure (Ashcraft, 2015).

Lastly, there is the superego, which acts as the stabilizer for both the ID and Ego, it’s the decision maker whether things are right or wrong. Its result is a feeling of love, as a reward or punish with guilt

Three levels of psychoanalytic development. I) ID, at this stage the person is under development, and he/she is controlled by the pleasure obtained from surrounding. II) The second stage is the reality stage, and it this point the person delays any action until its passed appropriate. The person is able to win power by relating his/her desires to the outside reality. II) At this stage, the person is bale to judge or censor his actions or thoughts of the ego. (Ability to bring the behavior under control)

Those who have gone through Freud’s stages of development would show a balance between their pleasure need, and reality, as well as be able to make rational decisions. They should also be able to maintain balance between ID, and Ego, and in turn manages their conflicts

Jung

Psychological types(categorizing people depending on personality patterns.

Psychological limits from the outset determines and limits a persons judgement.

Rationality (judging thinking and feeling)

Irrationality(perceiving sensation and intuition)

Sensation and intuition are the information gateering functions(descried how information is understood and interpreted)

Thinking and feeling(the decision making functions) (Ashcraft, 2015)

Introverts (they like spending time alone and thinking before taking an action)

Extravert (they are energized by actions, they reflect after an action is done)

Adler

The attempt to understand individuals from their social context.

The basic desire and goal for an individual is to belong and feel significant.

One feels capable and appreciated when encouraged.

One withdraws and gives up when discouraged.

Optimists (someone who thinks the best will happen)

Pessimist (one who thinks a bad thing will happen)

Ruling type (dorminate over others).

Leaning type(sensitive)

Avoiding type(Frick, 1991).

Horney

Neurosis (interpersonal control and coping)

Need for affectionand approval

Moving-towards strategy(self effacing solution) (Ashcraft, 2015)

Moving- against strategy(expansive solution)

Moving-away from strategy(resigning solution)

Parental indifferences(lack of warmth and affection in childhood brings neurosis.

The compliant person (sweet, self sacrificing, saintly)

Aggressive person (powerful, recognized winner)

Withdrawing person (independent) (Frick, 1991)

Erikson

Attepts to explain the role of culture and socity and the conflict that can take place within the ego itself(of an individual) (Frick, 1991)

Establishing a sense of truth in others

Developing a sense of identity in the society (Frick, 1991).

Helping the next generation prepare for the future.

Adaptive characteristics

Creative characteristics

Ego develops as it successfully restore crises that are distinctly social in nature.

Dependent person (requiring someone for support)

Independent person (they are creative and can do on their own)

References:

Ashcraft,D. M. (2015).&nbspPersonalitytheories workbook.

Frick,W. B. (1991).&nbspPersonalitytheories: Journeys into self : an experiential workbook.New York: Teachers College Press.