Public Policy

PublicPolicy

PublicPolicy

Thedecade later, following the 9/11 attacks have seen changes innumerous facets of life in the United States. Some were short-termchanges out of safety concerns, while others were long lastingtransformations. Of obvious and immediate changes following theattacks were the United States airport. It saw the creation of theAviation and Transportation Security Act, which has continued todirect security in every airport (Kraft &amp Furlong, 2004). The acthas also seen the outsourcing of security services to othercompanies. The elaborate and sophisticated security systems seem tobe working well.

Basedon the airport security changes, the new act oversaw theimplementation of procedures, which included more elaborate andstricter rules on luggage and passengers screening. The introducedmachines appear to work well on scanning of weaponry and destructiveitems (Kraft &amp Furlong, 2004). Pilots also fixed the airplaneswith fortified cockpit doors and application of federal flight deckofficers. This worked well since they were then allowed to carryloaded guns.

Thenew procedures are justifiable. This is because considering other newthreats to security were identified and discovered after the 9/11attacks, the introduction of new procedures to cub security likethose mentioned above were justifiable. Procedures like banning ofliquids and removing shoes were necessary (Kraft &amp Furlong,2004). Additionally, security costs had escalated at the time andanother procedure was to tack passenger tickets with a “September11 fee”. The procedure ensured rise in the air carrier fee. Inconclusion, emphasis on airport security is not excessive compared toother transportation security. This is because security concerns arealways targeted on the airports unlike other forms of transportation,according to Kraft &amp Furlong (2004). International threats aremore likely to emanate from air transport than on othertransportation forms.

References

Kraft,M. E., &amp Furlong, S. R. (2004). Publicpolicy: Politics, analysis, and alternatives.Washington, D.C: CQ Press.

PublicPolicy

Student’sname:

PublicPolicy

Publicpolicies provide guidelines for actions in certain issues. A majorissue addressed by public policies is public education. Education isconsidered a fundamental right of all persons. Therefore, variouspolicies have been devised to address public education with the aimof ensuring equality and access to all. This essay explores thepolicy issues of higher education in the US focusing on the factorsto be considered before making such a policy and highlighting some ofthe objections to such a supportive policy.

Thecost of higher education has grown to substantial levels as publiccolleges increase tuition fees to make up for reduced financialsupport from the states (Kraft &amp Furlong 2014). This has led tounequal access to college with the poor being left out since theycannot afford, thus, the need for government intervention. Pellgrants should be offered to students from low income families topromote equity in education. The benefits of subsidized educationextend to the society as well, making government support important.

Somefactors should be considered before making such a policy. Theimplications of declining access to college education on the economyshould be considered when making such a policy. The policy makersshould consider the roles of different players such the students,federal and state governments, colleges, and universities in reducingthe cost and promoting affordability. Responsibility for costs shouldbe shared among these players to avoid overburdening one (Kraft &ampFurlong 2014).

However,some arguments against government subsidies cite that the subsidiesmay not necessarily lead to better educational outcomes. The highnumber of beneficiaries could dilute the value of a degree leading toa poor labor market. Instead, the policy makers should focus on thepracticality of education. In addition, subsidization leads to a highdropout rate and repetition of classes by most graduates (Kraft &ampFurlong 2014).

Inconclusion, public policy on higher education is aimed at promotingequity in access. It provides Pell grants to needy students to ensurethat they receive higher education as well. However, when designingsuch policies various issues have to be considered to ensure theireffectiveness. The different players should also be incorporated topromote collaboration and shared responsibility.

Reference

Kraft,M. &amp Furlong, S. (2014). PublicPolicy: Politics, Analysis, and Alternatives.Washington, DC: CQ Press.

PUBLIC POLICY 4

PublicPolicy

PublicPolicy

Entitlementspending seeks address the social welfare of the citizens throughfederal-funded programs such as Medicaid and Social Security. Overtime, the program has experienced financial and administrativechallenges that hinder the realization of the expected outcomes. Thefinancial requirements to finance the programs increases every yearwith the rates getting higher compared to the tax revenue. Thegovernment is facing challenges in trying to meet other financialobligations for essential purposes. Another issue is the increasingnumber of people depending or benefitting from the programs. By 2020,for example, it is projected that that one in every five adults willbe 65 years or older. The high number creates structural imbalancethat affects government spending. There is also increased demand toimprove the social security programs to cover the increasingpopulation. Medicare is reporting increased enrolment that requiresthe government to put more resources to the sector.

Thepolicymakers need to consider appropriate and practical measures thatwill reduce the financial challenges without necessarily affectingthe intended goals. One approach is to review the cluster ofpopulation benefiting from the program. About 7 percent of theAmerican households earn over 150,000 dollars hence can afford to paya decent health insurance scheme. Such individuals should not beconsidered for government assistance until such a time when thegovernment has enough funds. Medicare, Medicaid and social securityprograms need to restructured to enhance they meet their objectivesusing the limited resources available. On social security, forinstance, the increase on the initial benefits needs to match theprices as opposed to wages in order to limit the growth of theprogram.Anotherapproach is through budget-cuts for non-essential activities or items(Kraft &amp Furlong, 2014).The targeted-reduction approach is the most common method wherecertain activities are suspended with the aim of saving money.

Reference

Kraft,M. E., &amp Furlong, S. R. (2014). PublicPolicy: Politics, Analysis, and Alternatives: Politics, Analysis, andAlternatives.Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications.