Themain aim of this research article review is to help nurses becomeeffective in their daily service delivery. They instill the practiceof learning how to assimilate critique, analyze and summarize anyspecific original research article of interests. Examination of thesearticles helps nurses appreciate varied sources of evidence that playessential role to shape their professional nursing practice.
Thispaper entails the analysis of evidence-based research findingsobtained from clinical question to bring about best nursing practice.Nurses at most cases experiences challenges in the form of care theyprovide, to address this challenges the nurses must explore furtherresearch in order to receive the best possible nursing practice. Theability to record new way of discharging nursing practice and obtainnew understanding both within the field of nursing and the generalhealthcare system is compelling.
Theresearch design of the article uses the PICOT format, a systemutilized to develop questions when carrying out evidence basedresearch practice. PICOT is an abbreviation standing for population/patient problem, intervention, Comparison, Outcome and Time asrepresented by the letters respectively. (P) Population/ patientproblem represent the identified category of subjects the clinicalresearcher would like to recruit to make part of the study (Lankford,2007).
Inthe sample of subjects selected, the researcher need to define theappropriate subjects who will most likely provide the requiredrespond concerning the specified intervention from those subjectsmainly termed as generalized patients less likely to contribute tothe responses needed in the actual practice. In other words, thisdefines the patient in question, that is the form of disease theysuffer from, their health status, race, sex, and age. (I)Intervention represent the form of treatment the sample populationenrolled for the study needs to be given. Intervention basicallyentails what the clinical researcher is planning to do with thesample patients, the specific therapies, medication and tests(Hoffmann at al., 2010).
(C)Comparison provides the clinicians alternative plan used as areference group which offers the comparison with treatmentintervention. Most researchers call this control group, which caneither be under no treatment, or undergoing a different form oftreatment (Hoffmann at al., 2010). (O) Outcome is the expectedresults intended to be used to measure the effectiveness ofintervention put in place. This is the outcome the clinicalresearcher is seeking, which can range from no symptoms, lesssymptoms or full health among others. (T) Time gives the duration theresearch study would take for the completion of collection of data(Hoffmann at al., 2010).
Thepublished quantitative study entitled ‘nurses and patientsperceptions of caring behaviors’ (papastavrou et al., 2011) is areport paper that entails a systematic review carried out to examinethe hypothesis that patients and nurses view the concept of caring inthe field of nursing differently. In nursing profession caring is acentral concept. Nevertheless, despite being an essential practice inclinical medicine, majority of scholars and researchers have yet toagree on a common definition (papastavrou et al., 2011). This lack ofconsensus on the mode of caring has elicited differentinterpretations that has led to opposing perspectives between nursesand patients.
Thesource of the data used was derived from an extensive search usingCINAHL, MEDLINE and EMBASE in a period of three months in 2009, allthese having no publishing time limit and the key words ‘caring’,‘care’, ‘nursing’, ‘nurse’, ‘patient’, ‘behaviors’,‘comparative’, ‘quantitative’ and ‘perception’(papastavrouet al., 2011). The quantitative study conducted is consistent withguidance of the center for reviews and dissemination (papastavrou etal., 2011). A checklist which contains seven items with yes or nooptions was created and utilized to access the quality status of thechosen literature and the summary narrative technique was adopted toreport outcomes.
Themain aim of the review was to examine whether there exist congruencebetween nurses and patients with regard to perceptions of caringbehaviors. And also it attempts to pinpoint any area of disagreementand agreement between these perceptions. The mode of inclusioncriteria used comprised ofadult participants, nurses, hospital orinstitution settings, patients populations, English language,quantitative research design and any other issues relevant to thestudy. The literature examination was conducted by two members (Green& Davis, 2005).
Fromthis review, it is fascinating to observe that in the early steps ofthis kind of research in the area of caring, the collection of datawas exclusively done using care-Q instrument and Q-methodologyinvented by Larson (1984). In the 23 studies assessed only 18 studiesused Q-methodology and the remaining studies utilized caringbehaviors inventory, the caring dimensions inventory and the caringbehavior assessment (Green & Davis, 2005).
Someof the outstanding differences were identified between patients andnurses with regard to their view of caring and caring behaviors inseveral reviewed studies. According to the Q-methodology, a number ofseveral essential differences were highlighted between the patientsand nurses (papastavrou et al., 2011). On the part of the patients,they appear to value the technical caring skills which areinstrumental more than nurses, and also they view competent behavioron nursing activities to be more essential.
Nurseson the other hand view their expressive and psychological skills tobe more important than the perception of the patients. This leads tothe logical conclusion that nurses often misperceive the need of theemotional aspect when caring contrary to the judgment of thepatients. Therefore, the care of the patients is not congruent totheir expectations, individuals’ needs and preferences. It isapparent from this quantitative study that nurses are not oftenaccurate in their assessment of the perception of patients ondifferent levels of caring which may led them to adopt plans ofcaring for the patient which are purely based on their ownassumptions (papastavrou et al., 2011). In essence, for high qualitynursing practice, nurses ought to factor patient’s perspective inorder to merge nursing activities with the patient outcome(papastavrou et al., 2011).
Themost appropriate way of conducting this form of research by newclinical practitioners is through interaction with researchers withexperience in the field to obtain the best form of study. This formof interaction offers the opportunity for the new researchers toshape their research question, with their limited grasp on thesubject the experience research community gives them the appropriatesteps needed to proper formulate of PICOT question (Hoffmann at al.,2010). The scope of this paper covers the formulation of the PICOTquestion, how it is implemented using the evidence-based researchderived during the development of systemic review.
GreenA. & Davis S. ( 2005 ) Toward a predictive model of patientsatisfaction with nurse practitioner care . Journalof the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners17 , 139 – 148 .
Hoffmann,T., Bennett, S., & Del, M. C. (2010). Evidencebased practice across the health professions. Sydney:Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier.
Lankford,R. D. (2007). Alcoholabuse. Detroit:Greenhaven Press.
Lippincott.W., (2015). Pathophysiology + Lippincott Nursing Drug Guide +Lippincott Manual of Nursing Practice, 10th Ed. + Leadership Rolesand Management Functions in Nursing, 8th Ed. + Evidence-BasedPractice in Nursing & Healthcare, 3rd Ed.
papastavroue., efstathiou g. & charalambous a. (2011) Nurses’and patients’ perceptions of caring behaviours: quantitativesystematic review of comparative studies.Journal of Advanced Nursing67 (6), 1191–1205.