Spirituality in Healthcare

Spiritualityin Healthcare

Spiritualityin Healthcare

Withthe application of technology currently, it has been made a littlebit simpler for individuals to detect the various medicalabnormalities especially in instances where the fetus may createdifficult choices for the parents in the event that criticalabnormalities are realized (Cotton et al., 2006). This case studycovers the case of Jessica and Marco. It is established that Jessicais pregnant with complications occurring in the fetus. This paperdiscusses in-depth the different conflicting situations that thecouple gets into and the theories that explain their behavior. It isclear that the value systems and the beliefs that the parents haveapparently clash with the realities that they are facing at themoment. There are a number of theories that are used by Jessica,Marco, Maria and Dr. Wilson to establish the moral status of thefetus. These theories are exploited and the manner in which theyaffect the recommendation for the action discussed.

DualConcern Model Theory

Thistheory evidently is applied by Maria. Maria strongly feels thatJessica should have the pregnancy and continue with it as shebelieves everything is to be taken care by God. Given that the modelis always two dimensional, it helps also explains the relationship ofthe subject to the rest of the persons (Sorenson, Morse &amp Savage,1999). This clearly brings out the interest that the subject harborstowards the rest in terms of the results and the existingrelationships. This theory explicitly explains the concerns thatMaria holds as far as the situation of Jessica is concerned.

TheConflict Model Theory

Thistheory is highly applied in instances where decision making iscritical (Botvinick, 2007). In this study, the theory appears to beused extensively by Marco. Marco feels that upon receipt of the newsby the wife, Jessica, there is certain level of stress that willovercome her. With stress in place then she will fail to make rightand informed decision. The stress to Marco is mainly due to concernsthat he has on his wife. The news as Marco believes may end up havingeffect on the self-esteem of the wife.

ChoiceSupportive Model Theory

Thistheory is evidently applied by Maria. It is evident as Maria tries toinfluence the autonomy of Jessica to make decision. Maria putsJessica in a scenario where she remains relying on the advice fromJessica and as such the decision would be the best (Robert &ampDennis, 2005).

Itend to agree with the first theory that is advanced by Maria, thetheory of dual concern. I do believe that even though the fetus isstill at early stages, 28 weeks, Jessica needs to do her best andleave the rest to God to take care of. I do believe that everybodyhas the right to make independent choices but such rights must not gobeyond the rights of the human beings. Arguably, one would want toput it that the fetus is not human, but I believe that eventermination of its life may even results in more complications toJessica. When deciding on the action to execute especially where thefetus is physically and mentally disabled every other person has hisor her opinion regarding the situation. Nonetheless, I believe thateverything happens for a reason and to this end, it is planned by Godand should be given a chance.


Thepersonhood chart is made up of a grid for different philosophicalanthropologies that answer the questions that entails personhood.



Personal View


An individual who is community oriented can help in fostering love and belonging. They have a purpose with their lives

An individual in a strained relationship has with him jealousy. This person is greedy, full of prejudice and is doubted.

This is a person who cares about family. Takes care of the family and community alike


Humans are multidimensional in the sense that there is the physical body connected to the soul through the senses

Persons have three distinct parts. These include the body, the soul and mind. The body is in place for life enjoyment

Each dimension of the human is important in the life


Different rules and guidelines exist as far as sex is concerned. There are beliefs on sexual orientation

Individual who are materialistic do not have minimum standards in regards to religion and sexual orientation

Each person has the obligation to follow their religion guideline in regards to sexual life as long as it does not affect the society


Morals are guidelines that help in explaining ethics, beliefs and philosophies of a given religion

They define the manner in which an individual lives. The lifestyle of persons

Individuals need to follow certain morals and philosophies in life to be happy as long as such morals do not affect others


The wrongs that a person does in their religion is defined

What people consider right or wrong differ from one person to another

Upon death individual’s destiny is determined essentially by wrong or right in the society

Destined for Eternal Life

Destined for eternal life:

There is life after death

There is eternal life after death but determined by God


Botvinick,M. M. (2007). Conflict monitoring and decision making: reconcilingtwo perspectives on anterior cingulate function.&nbspCognitive,Affective, &amp Behavioral Neuroscience,&nbsp7(4),356-366.

Cotton,S., Zebracki, K., Rosenthal, S. L., Tsevat, J., &amp Drotar, D.(2006). Religion/spirituality and adolescent health outcomes: Areview.&nbspJournalof Adolescent Health,&nbsp38(4),472-480.

Robert,L. P., &amp Dennis, A. R. (2005). Paradox of richness: A cognitivemodel of media choice.&nbspProfessionalCommunication, IEEE Transactions on,&nbsp48(1),10-21.

Sorenson,R. L., Morse, E. A., &amp Savage, G. T. (1999). A test of themotivations underlying choice of conflict strategies in thedual-concern model.InternationalJournal of Conflict Management,&nbsp10(1),25-44.


Spiritualityin Healthcare


Spiritual care hasbecome a highly discussed issue in contemporary health care. For manyyears, the spiritual dimensions of nursing care have been noted asimportant for healing. In 2001, The Joint Commission (TJC) added aspiritual assessment to their requirements for healthcare providers.The Code of Ethics for Nurses, written by the American NursesAssociation (ANA) demands that health care practitioners considerpatient’s values and beliefs when planning and implementing nursingcare (American Nurses Association, 2010). Researchers have shownspiritual care to be beneficial on many levels. It has the potentialto influence mental and physical health, immunity, cardiovascularhealth, and health behavior.

From a Christianperspective, spiritual health is closely linked to a person’soverall health and helps on return to a balance that completes thepicture of the wholeness. In the Old Testament, the Hebrew word Ruachhas most often translated the wind from God, breath, and spirit.Spiritual brokenness can be worse for overall health and physicalillness. Without the spirits of God guiding man to accomplish peace,repair relationship and find healing, one experiences a feeling ofloneliness and dysfunctions. Nurses trained to provide effective carecan help bring both physical and spiritual healing to their patients.Van Dover and Pfeiffer (2001) describe spiritual care as caring forthe human being, by engaging the core of whom the health careprovider is in caring for others.

Patients stillreport that they do not receive adequate spiritual care. Balbouni andcolleagues performed a study on 230 patients diagnosed with stage IVcancer. They found that 88% of the patients claimed religion to beimportant to then, but 12% stated their spiritual concerns were metminimally or not at all by the health care providers. They study alsofound that spiritual support by religious or medical personnel wassignificantly associated with a patients’ quality of life (Balboniet al., 2007). Astrow and colleagues (2007) noted that clients whoreported their spiritual need were not adequately addressed reportedsignificantly lower levels of satisfaction with their medical care.Palliative care patients have stated that they would rather beoffered spiritual care and be free to refuse it rather than it to notbe offered at all. In a study of parents of children who have died ata pediatric hospital, parents indicated that spiritual care is verycritical in the care of a dying child.


Classmate 1

The writer’s opening sentence is “Modernism is mainly based inscience where things are black and white almost in a cold fashion.”The reader can easily comprehend the author’s main argument andexpect more explanation on the topic of modernism and postmodernism. I agree with the writer’s point of view (Shelly &amp Miller,2006).


The writer talksabout dualism&nbspinthe western worldview. The author gives an example of dualism (twoindependent entities such as good and bad) forthe reader to comprehend the message. However, in thereadings, it is not clear how these thoughts help the author’svalue in life and/ or career (Shelly &amp Miller, 2006).


Theauthor’s opening lines asserting that “inthe western worldview a higher being may be acknowledged but it isnot involved with the world as to the point where it is notimportant in human life,” gives a clear stand of the author’sthoughts. However, not every person would agree to these statement.The author continues by saying that. “Illness’s are controlledby science and technology” (Shelly &amp Miller, 2006).However, the author’s ideas are vague, and the point of him/her andare based on bias and ignoring what other people think about his/ hertopic.


Thefirst sentence well explains the writers idea. The writer argues that“Modern Western worldview is based off the battle of goodversus evil where one has to have full control over the other side tohold freedom and order or enslavement and chaos.” I, as areader, can relate to the author’s thoughts.


American Nurses Association. (2010). Code of Ethics. Retrieved fromhttp://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/EthicsStandards/CodeofEthicsforNurses/Code-of-Ethics.pdf

Astrow, A. B., Wexler, A., Texeira, K., He, M. K., &amp Sulmasy, D.P. (2007). Is failure to meet spiritual needs associated with cancerpatient’s perceptions of quality of care and their satisfactionwith care? Journal of Clinical Oncology, 25, 5753-5757.

Balboni, T. A., Vanderwerker, L. C., Block, S. D., Paulk, M. E.,Christopher, S., Peteet, J. R., &amp Prigerson, H. G. (2007).Religiousness and spiritual support among advanced cancer patientsand associations with the end of life treatment preferences andquality of life. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 25(5),555-560.

Kenny, G., &amp Ashley, M. (2005). Children’s student nursesknowledge of spirituality and its implications for educationalpractice. Journal of Children’s Healthcare, 9(3),174-85.

Van Dover, L., &amp Pfeiffer, J. B. (2001). Spiritual care innursing practice: A close-up view. Nursing Forum, 36(3),18-30.