Student I.D




IntegrativeResearch Methods

Qualitativeresearch explicates explicitly or implicitly the goal and purpose ofa particular research study. It also describes the role of theresearcher, the platforms of the study and the method of datacollection and analysis (Torrance, 2012). Positivist paradigm hasdominated the nursing research for many years. Positivism is a mirrorof the broader cultural features (Polit &amp Beck, 2008). Theprimary assumption is that there is a reality out there that can bestudied. Advocates of positivism perspective presuppose that natureis regular and that objective reality exists, independent of humanobservation. Due to its conviction in an objective reality,positivist places immense significance on objectivity and attempt toeliminate personal bias and beliefs, and to avoid contamination ofthe study in question (Polit &amp Beck, 2008). This work willthoroughly evaluate the methodologies and methods that can be used toprovide answers to the question relating to the use of paracetamol intreating fever in children.


Asuitable research approach is required to provide a succinct answerto the research question use of paracetamol for treating fever inchildren. A methodology is a plan or strategy that defines selectionand use of methods and relates them to the desired results. Unlikebefore when researchers regarded epidemiological methods as the onlygold standard in the healthcare research studies, many scholars inthe 21st century concur that effective research in any fieldnecessitates methodological pluralism (Hesse-Biber, 2014).

Multiplemethodology research draws on the paradigm of critical theory andconstructivism to address research question from a relevant angle,making use of past studies where necessary (Hesse-Biber, 2014). Mixedmethodology basically means the use of more than one type ofinvestigative perspective. Multiple methodology research provides theresearcher with best in a clear investigative path. It is a morecomprehensive methodology since they approach the research questionfrom different angles (Hesse-Biber, 2014). It allows the blending oftools and strategies to gather different forms of data, enablingcrossing of disciplinary restrictions. Multiple methodology researchis particularly appropriate for this study due to its broad approachto redressing question relating to the use of paracetamol inchildren. The fundamental steps to conducting a multiple methodologyresearch tag on the scientific methods, such as describing thechallenge, gathering data from pertinent sources to formulate andtest hypothesis, thoroughly inspecting the collected data andconcealed patterns, evaluating the findings and providing the resultsfor audience education and for peer- review (Hesse-Biber, 2014).

Aparticipatory research methodology (PR) is also a suitable approachfor uncovering the effects of the use of paracetamol for treatingfever in children. This methodology is geared towards carrying outthe research process and planning with the children (people) whosemeaningful activities, and life world are under study (Bergold &ampThomas, 2012). Consequently, this means that the goal of theinvestigation and the research question emerge out of the union oftwo approaches health practice and science. A participatorymethodology is an approach that argues in favor of the prospect, theimportance and the efficacy of involving research partners in theprocess of producing knowledge (Bergold &amp Thomas, 2012). Inhealthcare practices, the union of science and practice means thatresearchers can be tempted to introduce their own perspective whendealing with existential challenges (Baum, 2006). PR enables partnersin research to step back cognitively from common customs, modes ofinteraction and power affiliation in a bid to primarily scrutiniseand re-ponder established construal of the scenario and approaches(Baum, 2006). For example, PR requires assessment and extensiveengagement with the group of people under study (directly involved)and those less -centrally involved in the process.

Phenomenologyapproach can also be a useful methodology in this study as itexplicates the underlying situation and addresses it from the nurses’perspective. Phenomenology starts with a condition and an extensivedescription of participants with the shared condition or incident. Inour case, the children that take paracetamol to treat fever can beparticipants although parents’ contribution is equally important inestablishing dosage, frequency and effects. This approach alsoexamines the impacts and perceptions of that experience. Thismethodology differentiates reality from perceptions by interpreting afact or an experience by listening to diverse narrations from theparticipants.


Theresearch method selected should fit under the umbrella of qualitativeresearch and succinctly address the question of the use ofparacetamol to treat fever in children. The whole process shouldstart with identification of a focus group (children of aged between(6months-10 years). The focus group should encompass children who areunwell with temperatures above 37.8°C precipitated by an illnessthat can be managed at home. This means that children who needhospitalisation are excluded.

Open-endedquestionnaires can be used to gather relevant data in relation to useof paracetamol treating fever in children. Open-ended questions areeffective tools for surveys of small groups because there is nojustification for complex statistical examination (Polit &amp Beck,2008). This means that the qualitative nature of the questions willaccord the researcher precious input from all the participants. Thegolden rule when using open-ended questions in focus group study, isthat the group should be small enough to enable the researcher tocapture unique reactions and reflect in the information gathered(Polit &amp Beck, 2008).

Astructured interview can be developed and clarified using pilotinterviews. This method will gather background information of thefocus group on variables such as education level, financial status,age, and experience of the sick child (Polit &amp Beck, 2008). Thearea where the interviews shall be conducted is identified andcaution should be taken to ensure diversity in the specifiedlocation. Adequate preparation is important to ensure the interviewsachieve the intended results (Polit &amp Beck, 2008). This means thequestions should not be intimidating, and participants should beaccorded several options, including all the possible answers.


Toprovide succinct answers to the research question on paracetamol, amixed methodology can be employed using structured interviews andopen-ended questionnaires. Nurses apply their health practice andscientific principles to address various problems in their setting.In this process, individual bias sometimes distorts the analysiscapability of healthcare professional. Use of mixed methodologyensure the element of bias is eliminated and while providing a deepunderstanding of the phenomenon experienced


Baum,F.,MacDougall, C. and Smith, D. (2006). Participatory action research.Journalof Epidemiol Community Health, 60(10): 854–857.

Bergold,J&amp Thomas,S (2012). Participatory Research Methods: AMethodological Approach in Motion [110 paragraphs]. ForumQualitative Sozialforschung / Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 13(1). Art. 30,

Hesse-Biber,S. (2014). QualitativeApproaches to Mixed Methods Practice.Boston College, Department of Sociology.

Polit,D. F., &amp Beck, C. T. (2008). Nursingresearch: Generating and assessing evidence for nursing practice.Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/lippincott Williams &ampWilkins.

Torrance,H. (2012). Triangulation, respondent validation, and democraticparticipation in mixed methods research. Journalof Mixed Methods Research, 6(2), 111-123S