Student`s Name

AnAllegory:St. Lucy’s Home for Girls Raised by Wolves

Allegoriesare poems, stories or pictures that can be construed to reveal ahidden meaning. They allow readers to get into the authors’ mindsto understand their moral or political perspectives of the world.This paper will analyze the allegory in Karen Russell’s shortstory.

Thestory recounts the experiences of young werewolves who are taken tomission school to be converted to be young ladies. Russell narratesthe uncomfortable transformation of the young werewolves, who hadbeen used to a life in the forest. They had to learn to be human,walk on two feet, adopt human names, dress, eat and speak likehumans. While transition was easy for some of them, others likeMirabella had a hard time letting go of her animal nature andconforming to acceptable norms, which led to her being kicked out ofthe school.

Thestory allegorizes the assimilation of the natives into the Europeanand American cultures. Just like the natives, the wolves in the storylived in forests, caves, ate wild foods, and spoke in indecentlanguages (Russell, 238). The story also alludes to the struggle thenatives went through in an attempt to adopt a new culture and abandontheir own. Russell describes how the young werewolves had a hard timeletting go the habit of ‘roaming the grounds and wagging theirtails” (240). Besides, they did not have much of a choice, since itwas either they accepted assimilation or be cast out of the ‘AmericanLifestyle’ as depicted by Mirabella’s eviction from the school.

Russellalso notes that the werewolves knew their place in the new society(241) and “As soon as we realized that someone higher up in thefood chain was watching us, we wanted only to be pleasing in theirsight” (245). This statement allegorizes the colonialism era, wherenatives were forced to submit to European authority and adopt‘civilized’ cultures.


Russell,Karen. “St. Lucy’s Home for Girls Raised By Wolves,” (2006).Web.


Determinationof Partition Coefficient via Extraction of Benzoic Acid and itsConjugate Base from Two Immiscible Phases


Theaim of this experiment was to establish the partition coefficient ofthe compound benzoic acid in two phases, which are immiscible. Theseare the organic and the aqueous phases. The experiment will be donein two parts. The first part consists of dichloromethane-deionizedwater. The deionized water acts as the aqueous phase whiledichloromethane is the organic layer. Liquid extraction of benzoicacid will then be done at this point. The second part also entailsliquid extraction of benzoic acid from the two phases. However,instead of deionized water, sodium bicarbonate was used as theaqueous layer. The partition coefficient is then obtained by dividingthe mass of benzoic acid recovered from the organic phase by the massof benzoic acid retained in the aqueous phase. For this experiment,the partition coefficient in the first part, which consisted ofdichloromethane-deionized water, was established as 16. For thesecond part consisting of dichloromethane-sodium bicarbonate mixture,the partition coefficient was found to be 0.06.


Thisexperiment involved liquid-liquid extraction, which is a processwhere a compound is extracted from a solvent in which it is insolubleto one where it dissolves. The two liquids that formed the organicand aqueous layers were immiscible. Therefore, a distinct layer ofthe two was easily formed. The layer on top usually consists of theless dense liquid. In the first part of the experiment, de-ionizedwater was the top layer since it has a density of 1.0 g/cm3.Dichloromethane, which is a highly halogenated compound, is heavierwith a density of about 1.33 g/cm3. Hydrocarbons are lighter thanwater. The layer on top was sodium bicarbonate in the second part ofthe experiment. This is because sodium bicarbonate is highly aqueouswith a 92% of water. In the first part, the recovered mass ofbenzoic acid was found to be 47mg while the mass retained in thedeionized water was 3mg. Benzoic acid is an organic compound.Therefore, this makes it highly soluble in organic solvents.Therefore in the first part of the experiment, most of the benzenedissolved in the organic phase that contained dichloromethane. In thesecond part, the mass that was recovered was only 3mg while thatretained in the aqueous phase of sodium bicarbonate was 47mg. Thisresulted from the formation of the salt of sodium benzoate, which isan ionic compound, and, therefore, dissolves easily in the aqueousphase of sodium bicarbonate and hardly dissolves in the organic phaseof dichloromethane. This sodium benzoate salt is formed due to thereaction of benzoic acid and the aqueous phase of sodium bicarbonate.The partition coefficient found in the first part of the experimentwas 16 while that for the second part of the experiment was found tobe 0.06. These values for the partition coefficient vary greatly withthe theoretical values. For example for the first part of theexperiment, the theoretical partition coefficient value is 53.5.These discrepancies are because of errors that occurred during theexperiment. An error could have occurred from the weighing wherebysome of the benzoic acid may have been lost. Another error may haveresulted from the two phases, organic and aqueous, failing toseparate properly. Also during the extraction, water could havegotten into the pipettes hence leading to error. Contamination couldalso have led to errors mainly through the improper cleansing of thepipettes or mixing the reagents.

EnvironmentalAnalysis in Regard to Hanh’s View

InHanh’s book, TheWorld We Have,he lays a special link of interconnection and interdependence betweenthe human beings and the ecological ecosystem. Hanh, is extremelyconcerned of the welfare of planet earth and how best it can bepreserved to be better and healthier for generations to come. Hanhpegs majority of his writings on Buddha teachings and stresses moreon the need for human beings to concentrate more on the impermanenceof things and major on how best to improve the state of Mother Nature(Hanh introduction, 3rdparagraph). He goes further to have a finer look at the way naturehas been greatly destroyed around the world by highlighting thedestruction of various ecological features like the destruction ofthe Amazon forest in Ecuador, he looks at the preservation of the redcranes in China as well as the preserved no man’s land between theKoreas that happens to be a blessing in disguise due to the fact thatthe fighting between the two countries has led to the establishmentof a great uninterrupted ecological site (Hanh introduction, 1st paragraph). In addition to that, the book goes ahead to highlight alot about the relationship between the human beings and otherelements in the ecological system like mans relationship with plants,animals and minerals while reiterating that they all need each otherfor advanced co-existence. However,Hanh’s approach will not fully motivate people to change andprotect to environment (Thesis statement).

Inthe process of creating an awakening call for an establishment ofstrong brotherhood and sisterhood, Hanh notes with regret that humanbeings tend o only associate their ancestry from fellow human beingsand forget that they are actually in real sense true descendants ofplants and animals. Human beings spend a lot of energy and timearound the world greedily investing on what they can consume withoutmuch focus on what else they can do to better the levels ofcoexistence between them and the environment including plants andanimals, (Batchelor 2012, p. 87-107). The human beings destroyforests and hunt down animals without remembering that they areprimates who happen to share a common ancestry. Further, they destroyforests leading to high levels of deforestation that could in essencelead to desertification as was the case with the Amazon forests inEcuador. Majority of the plants grown across the world is onlytargeted at growing animals for meat and general consumption and themajority of tones harvested are simply used in the brewing industryto make beer and other forms of liquor. There is no true existence ofgenuine brotherhood or sisterhood as the human beings keep mindingmore about themselves and their welfare without much concern andfocus on their the overall welfare of the environment. He furtherrequests people to stop the consumption of meat but rather embracethe vegetarians practice as has been evidenced to be of less negativehealth effects. These propositions are actually healthy and welcomein this era of lifestyle diseases. On the other hand, it could bepointless to believe that only animal products do pose a serioushealth effect upon consumption as the overall environment is equallypolluted by the greenhouse gases already in the atmosphere that leadto the piling of heavy metals and poisonous gases in plant products,(Choi 2005, p.149-170). However, Hanh’s propositions shouldactually be positively embraced and adopted to help reduce myriads oflifestyle diseases currently affecting several people around theworld. Chunk foods that are mostly prepared from animal products andprocessed foods have been discovered to be a major cause of diseaseslike obesity and some forms of cancers.

Hanhfurther advocates for collective living in the society, whereby hebesieges all persons’ to live with compassion, responsibility andloving kindness. This is targeted at ensuring that the people shiftmuch of their focus to the person they are and the environment theylive in. He requests all persons to be strong protectors of theenvironment and to equally target on living more fulfilling livesrather than basing their lives on mere dreams like the American dream(Hanh Chap 1, 5thparagraph. In the American dream, people are more focused andconcerned about how to own a car, personal mobile phone and atelevision set. When this dream gets pursued in other developingcountries like china and Vietnam, then that in itself sparks awaiting time bomb that could equally write off humanity and otherecological systems. More people owning cars means that more crude oilneeds to be extracted more than proportionately, resulting in theuncontrolled emission of carbon gases into the atmosphere that havean adverse effect on the environment (Hanh Chap 1, 5thparagraph). These adverse effects could potentially lead to globalwarming that also leads to environmental deterioration. On collectiveleaving, Hanh reiterates that human beings need to live morewholesome and fulfilling lives that we all stay responsive of thestate of our mother nature and diligently work towards ensuring thatwe live in a balanced environmental set up. However, we also ought tonote the fact that global warming has aided in the exploration ofminerals in the arctic region due to surface meltdowns that have ledto exposures, (Choi 2005, p.149-170). Thus, bearing in mind the trueeffect of global warming that has resulted in increased heat levelsacross the world, we realize that global warming has been moredestructive than constructive as has led to increased heat relateddiseases like diabetes in addition to increased water levels that hasled to increased flooding. Hence, there is need to strongly supportHanh’s propositions.

Onthe issue of environmental degradation and other environmentalhazards, Hanhs tends to pose quite a number of workable alternativesthat can help maintain a healthy planet that can be able to live tosustain the next couple of generations to come. He insists on theurgent need to avoid and eliminate deforestation in addition tomitigating the practice of releasing toxic gases into the atmosphere.This is possible through responsible use of vehicles without thefeeling and condition getting obsessed with their use. Use of betterfuel empowered vehicles like the use of the vegetable oil poweredvehicles and the hybrid powered vehicles that poses little or noadverse environmental effect (Hanh Chap 5, 27thparagraph).. This means that, Hanh strongly expects the people toturn to the use of green energy as compared to the fossil fueledenergy that seems to be a great contributor of global warming andgreenhouse effects. Most plants and animals have all along beenextinguished from the face of the earth due to great humanirresponsibility that has seen the earth and mother nature inwholesome get extremely depleted. This can however not be fullyrelied upon as effectively conclusive as climate change has equallybrought about positive effects like increased production of solarenergy in addition rapid rates of crop maturities, (Choi 2005,p.149-170). It is actually true that we all rise o oppose the releaseof toic gases in the atmosphere but fail to bring forth innovationsand inventions to help curb them. Thus, we reject Hanh’ practice ofmere complaints and request that he delivers instant global workingsolutions to curb global warming.

Inaddition to this, Hahn also lays strong emphasis on the impermanenceof life (Hanh Chap. 5, 26thparagraph). In this context, he tries to illustrate the need andpurpose for persons to know that most of these earthly lives areimpermanent and hence there is urgent need to live a life ofappreciation and acceptance. In this case, there is that dire needfor persons to believe that death is a reality and its time alwayscomes. He asserts that majority of the people die because of thefeeling of desperation and lack of acceptance once diagnosed withvarious illnesses that seem incurable like cancer and HIV Aids. Inhis confirmation of the acceptance and conviction in the impermanenceof life, Hahn goes ahead to give examples of persons who have beenable to live for extensively extended periods of time despite theseverity of their conditions because of the mere condition of theacceptance and believe in the impermanence of life, (Lopez 2010,p.42-54). He therefore urges human beings to live in harmony with theother elements of nature in the spirit of brotherhood and sisterhood.He further urges we as living human beings to lay much focus onensuring we heal ourselves first by taking much care about our properstate of health before majoring on other worldly acquisitions oreven before focusing on healing the other elements of the planet thatequally face personal challenges of existence and survival, (Hahnchap.9, par.10). This proposition seems to be healthy and moreacceptable as they ensure people live a life centered first on theirwell being before anything else. It is actually very healthy for allof us to fully embrace and co ordinate this processes to help usunderstand out true state of impermanence and hence live a flexiblelifestyle.

Therefore,Hanh’s book strongly lays great emphasis on the general welfare ofthe elements of planet earth and their healthy coexistence. He isstrongly determined to have everybody embrace the practice ofenvironmental conservation in addition to observing a healthierlifestyle based on more organic foods. He fights for the future ofthe earth and the generations to come and that is why he is stronglyadvocating against practices that contribute to global warming andclimate change. Hanh’s proposals are actually very timely andindispensable for the sake of a better environment and adoption ofhealthier lifestyles. I therefore strongly support Hanh’s proposalsand request that they receive the necessary support by all relevantpolicy legislating organs. However, I do not believe many peoplearound the globe will be willing to welcome Hanh’s suggestion forinstance, it is a dream of every person to drive his or her car, butHanh’s suggest public transport, like use of busses in order toreduce the carbon footprint or emission. I am sure not many peoplewill leave their personal car to use public means like busses, and asa result, Hanh’s approach will not fully motivate people to changeand protect to environment.


Batchelor,Stephen:’ ASecular Buddhism’, Journal of Global Buddhism 13 (2012): 87-107

Choi,Onelack: TheImpacts of Social Economic Development and Climate Change on SevereWeather Catastrophe Losses:Mid-Atlantic Region and the U.S. climatechanges,2005 58(1-2): 149-170.

Hanh,T. Nhat. TheWorld WE Have,A Buddhist Approach to Peace and Ecology

Lopez,Donald S: TheStory of Budhism,HarperCollins, 2010. P.42-54



Thesisfor pages 28-88

Thenovel, Sakuntala is a novel based on the Hindu culture that is usedto bring out the contribution and understanding of the human kindthrough their culture and traditions. The novel is used to capturethe Indian culture through various ways among them the poetic natureof the poet. The Love story of the two love birds is used by thereader to show the different culture in the Indian environment. Theepic story is used to capture the history and the culture of theIndians through the use of the love story.

Thepoetic narrative that is used to show the Indian culture has the useof romance in the narration of the epic story of the King and thebeautiful maiden. The beauty of a woman is represented in the firstpart of the poem through the artistic work of the writer.Additionally the writer has introduced the western culture in thenarration of the epic story and the use of curse and modification(Thapar, 23). The relation between the king and the beautiful maidenis among the main topic that captures the reader more informationabout the Indian culture.

Thesisfor pages 88-161

Additionallythe story unfolds with much drama due to the relationship between theking and the maiden and the bearing of their son who is to bedeclared the heir. Kanva is the prince and the heir to the thrownthat is prepared from childhood through care, love and attention inreadiness to take up from the father. Through the speech with thegods the ignorant king is ready to accept his son from Shakuntala andanoints him as the prince. Despite the problems faced by the princeKanva and his mother as they are cast out of the palace as theunwanted wife out of wedlock and her son, Kanva continues to showbetter behavior and talents. In summary, the birth of the son toShankutala has seemingly brought her joy than she ever imagined bythe way he has turned out.


Thapar,Romila. Sakuntala:texts, readings, histories.Columbia University Press, 2011.


Thesymbolism of the Mandala

Mandalais a fantasy fortress that is anticipated during reflection. Everyitem contained in the fortress is important, signifying some aspectsof wisdom. The colours, shapes and forms of the mandala aredemonstrated by various scriptural manuscripts. Mandalas arecategorised into various types each having a specific lesson toeducate and blessing to confer. Most mandalas comprise of host ofdeities that are symbolizes the landscape of the mind.

However,mandalas have inner, secret, and outer meaning. They symbolize a mapby which the common human mind is changed into the rational mind onthe inner level, the world in its divine form on the outer level andpredict the faultless balance of the understated energies of the bodyon the secret level.

Eachtantric structure has its mandala that represents spiritual andexistential approach. Examples include Lord Avalokiteshvara, whichdenotes compassion, Lord Vajrapani focuses on the need for strengthand courage in the quest for sacred knowledge and Lord Manjushriconcentrates on wisdom. Medicine Buddha mandalas produce powers ofhealing.

However,painting with coloured sand among the Tibetan ranks as one of themost exquisite. A lot of grains of painted sand are thoroughly laidon a level platform for several days, leading to the formation of acomplex diagram of the ideal world and the enlightened mind. Thecoloured sand is the common material used in the formation of“dul-tson-kyil-khor”. Other popularly used materials are herbs ofgrains and powdered flowers. In olden days, powdered semi-preciousand precious were used (rubies would be for the reds and lapis lazulifor the blues). When done, the coloured sand is swept up and decantedinto a nearby stream or river for the healing energies to be carriedthroughout the world.

Student’sNameProfessor’snameCourseSubmissionDateIntroduction Theeconomicsituationin theUSA has beendescribedin manyways,from financialanalystviewto layman’s understandingandevenpoliticalfigures.Somehadtheviewthattheeconomyis doingwellwhileothers disagreeandbelievethattheeconomyis goingto crash.Theessay will discusstheeconomicsituationbased on interviewsby Fox Business News andCNN. To beginwith Schiff, Peter. Personalinterview4th August 2015 Fox Business News addresseda fewpointson theeconomy.HestatedthattheFederal Reserve System wasmisdirecting resourcesmakingfundsavailableto banksat loworzero interestrateswon’t makethe economy to grow.Itwill widenthegapbetween therichandpoorleadingto incomeinequality.Theinstitutionsgettingthismoneyare involvedin sharebuybacks, andthatdoesnot contributemuchto theeconomicgrowthheadded.Also,hestateddollaris weakeningas a resultof inflation.Hesaidthatthegovernmentclaimsthatpeoplewith partimejobsare categorizedas employedandthisis wrong.To supporthis claimed,hesaidthatyoucannot categoriesan engineeras employedwhenhe/sheis workingas a partimeemployeein a groceryshop.Headdedthattheeconomicmarketis not a freemarketas Federal Reserve System determinesinterestrates.ThesecondobservationI madewasBuffet, Warren. Personalinterview,13th October 2015. BuffetWarren, wasof theopinionthattheeconomywasdoingwellandthatthere upanddownsin theeconomy.Hestatedthatincreasingminimumwageper hourwon`t be thesolutionbutwill leadto unemployment.Headdedthebestwayto helplow-income earner would be through incomecredit tax. Thegovernmentcan putin placesoundcorporate fiscalpolicy.Hestatedthatpeopleshould not base their decisionson Federal Reserve System Schiff, Peterargueshis perspectiveon crushingeconomyI tendto agreewith Buffet, Warren, thateconomyhas recessionandboomsand,theeconomywill alwayshavethiscycle.In his pointthatweare in controlledeconomydue to theparticipationof theFederal Reserve System Control, I disagree.Theeconomyis a mixedeconomymarketwherethere are governmentcontrolandfreemarketforces.I agreewith Schiff on thepointthatprintingmoremoneywon’t maketheeconomygrowandmakingitavailableto institutionsthat lenditwithout directingtheseresourcesto productionandcreationof jobswon’t doanygoodto theeconomy.There should be Implementation of soundminimumtax system billthatdon’tstrainlow-income earner andalsodiscouragecorporate organizationorratherstraintheir profits.Peopleshould not disregardtheFederal Reserve System in makingtheir decisionsbutshould analyzeits informationtoo.Soundminimumwagepolicyshould beputin placeonethat won’t makeorganizationsretrenchtheirworkersandthat won’t makeworkersgivesomuchandgetless.Conclusion

Theabovecomponentof economic,governmentpolicies,incomeinequalityanddesignof soundtaxsystemandmarketsystemscommentsare madebased on thetwo interviews.Agoodeconomicsystemshould havesoundeconomicpoliciesthat allowthemarketto operateat its efficientlevel.


CNNMoney.Interview with Buffet, Warren. By Poppy Harlow. CNN. 13thOctober 2015.

FOXBusiness News. Interview with Schiff, Peter. FOX News.4thAugust 2015.

Therefour primary scales of measurement used in market research theyinclude. Nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio. Nominal scale refersto the labeling of the item in terms of a figure without given order.It categorizes data. In marketing, it can be used to identifyrespondents or brand attributes.

Ordinalscale it is used to rank item according to preferences. Listingobjects with numbers to show relatively the characteristic possessed.It allows marketers to interpret gross order. Marketers use it todetermine relative attitudes of customers toward a product.

Aninterval scale is a 5 or 7 scale where figures are used to rank itemsin a way that numerically equal length on the interval scale reflectsthe same distance in the attributes being measured. It allowscomparison between items. Marketers use it to rate their customersatisfaction

Ratioscale, top level measurement possesses all properties of the threeabove scales. It has a neutral point. It enables you to identifygroup rank and compare the differences of the objects. In marketing,sales, cost, market share and consumers are objects measured usingratio scale


(a)Continuous rating scale. Because I eliminated semantic scaling,the above figure has five polar digits, while semantics should haveseven. I also eliminated Likert scale because it has five adjectives.I remained with one option that was continuous scaling.

(b)Ordinal scale. The question requires that you rank the itemaccording to preferences and from the above points only ordinalrelates to the ranking.

(c)Nominal scaling. TUID is a number assigned to a card. Here thenumber only serves the purpose of labeling

(d)Interval scaling. I eliminated nominal because the question cannotbe ranked in order of preference.The I assumed that the informationwas on a scale from less than 15minutes to more than 120 minutes andaccording to interval definition, this question falls under thiscategory.s

3Likert scale

Isa popular method used to measure respondents` attitudes by looking athow respondent agree or disagree?

Storeattendants should feel information concerning their customer formarketing analysis of all three scale ratings.

Veryloyal not very loyal Neutral Not so loyal disloyal

Semanticdifferential scale

Isa seven series bipolar rating scale used to measure attributes ofsomething. Two adjectives are placed on each end.


Staplescale store loyalty

Itis a ten pointer rating scaling with no zero figure. Its figuresrange from -5 to +5.








Zikmund,William G, and Barry J. Babin. Essentialsof Marketing Research.Australia: South-Western, Cengage Learning, 2013. Print.


Theoriesof Religion


Sociologyof Religion

Weber,Durkheim, and Marx are philosophers that differed in their theoriesof sociology of religion. Though they each try to explain how thereligious factor in the society that increases is built on the basisof rationalism (Catlin 2014, 131). Of the three thinkers, Marx is theone who was the earliest to write something little about religion. Inhis writing, there is little mentioning about religion, such that itwill not be easy to pull the sociology of worship. However, whenindulging in his book, especially the first paragraphs, you will beable to pull Marx classical stamen on religion, which is the opium ofthe people.

Inhis statement” Let us not forget that there exists no otherreligious reality than the faith of the believer. If we want to knowreligion, we must refer exclusively to the believer`s testimony,(W.B. Kristensen)”. The statement might not be similar to thedeclarations made by Weber. Durkheim, the three philosophers, triesto explain how religion came to be and the effects that religion hason the society (Weber 2002, 88). In his book, Marx starts off thecontribution the criticism that the people had on religion with abold opening. Marx clarifies his position there is nothing likenon-human being and when a man tries to seek a supernatural he willend up finding only his reflection (Dilthey, 2008, 458-460).According to him, religion is nothing but a reflection of humanityand not God. The gods that man tries to find is he as discoveredthrough the course of recent events in history.

Whenit comes to Durkheim, he uses the history of religion to illustratethe manner at which society came to be structured. In hisexplanation, for instance, Durkheim classificatory schemes used insocial groups are based on the difference that is found in tribes(Durkheim, 2002). According to him, tribes were categorized into twodivisions that were subdivided further into various clans. It is thisdivision according to Durkheim that was used to classify theenvironment and the surrounding into different categories. He remarksthat there is nothing objective in the world that forces humans to beable to group things with each other (Münch, 2008, 450). There is noplace in reality is it possible to observe beings that can be able tomerge their nature as well as to change into one another. He tries toexplain that the realities to where religious speculation is appliedare the same theories that would serve as the objects that scientistwould use. The realities that were created were society, nature andman. These facts are used to try to connect things together, tryingto establish internal relationships between things that both classifyand systematize them. According to his explanation, Durkheim statesthat religion is not the thing that brought society, rather it is thesociety that gave birth to worship(2002).

Weberclaims that people tend to peruse only that which interest them(Weber, 2002). According to him, religion is a tool that has beenbrought forth to provide a tool for social change as well asstability. To support his theory, Weber comes up with various trends,for instance, the importance of believing in magic that the earliersociety had, thus the reason that acts were efficacious during thisperiod. At this stage of life, magicians were able to do certaintasks like the protection of the village, healing and alsofacilitating the growth of crops (Elwell 2014, 77). The magiciansrealized that for them to be relevant, they will have to ensure thatthe people are always in need of their services. As time went by, aneed of having particular gods rose and those gods grew in prominenceas well as monotheism in the end becoming more dominant. Weber claimsthat the creation of these gods needs something to be able tomaintain them and thus came the priesthood. The next team t creationwas the prophets, just like the magicians they used to empower thecommunity due to their gift of having charisma.

Theentire three authors had different theories defining religion. By theend of the era, none of them believed that it is a religion thatbrought society, rather the organization that brings forth faith. The difference found between Marx and Durkheim. Marx spends most ofhis research and writing trying to state how the economy factors arethe reason behind the engines of history spending less time onreligious topics. Durkheim spends a lot of time in exploring ofreligion and how it has influenced the direction that the societytakes (Michels 2015, 5).Just like Durkheim, Weber spends a lot oftime in a contemporary society that rooted in the process ofreligion. At the same time, Weber just like Marx sees the drivingforce of indulging into history by using the driving forces, themartial of interest and not ideas that found in religious belief.Weber tries to bring out the ideas found in the Religious faith . Theprimary focus of his book is the combination of using technologiesthat are employed in the facilitation of capitalism as well as theascetic behavior. Those are off the Calvinist of allowed capitalismto be able to flourish both in Europe and America.

Johnstone(2001) listed five components that define religion. He statedreligion is composed of the group, sacred miracles, the creed thatrepresent the Supreme Being and norms and culture. In his definitionthere no significant differences with classic perspective, however,he added how people interacted worshiped differently from theclassical view. He Believed religion exist from society, and societyfrom religion. Church universally influence people and eliminatecompetition of faith through monopolizing religion (Johnstone, 2001).He also added that church follow routine in there rituals.

Anthropologyof Religion

Scholarshave tried to define the study and meaning of religion withoutsuccess. Most students in their definition focus more on the groupsof people rather than the individual experience that a person getsout of religion. For those scholars that look at the experience of aperson with religion, they do their research based on a larger group.Most scholars define religion as an overall framework that is used bya panel so as to understand its world as well as guide the life. Ourdaily general framework shapes every moment that a certain group goesthrough. It is not something that is out of the ordinary, in fact, inmost cases it does go on like everyday life experiences.

CliffordGeertz is among the influential figure when it comes to religion. Hebrings out a definition of religion that has been used and borrowedwhen it comes to studying of religion. It is his definition ofreligion that gives us a starting place for those who are studyingreligion to be able to understand it in a social as well asscientific way. It suggests that every group, and individual in oneway or another live under the concept of religion. Even in the casethat no one in the group believes either in God or life after deathor any familiar trappings of religion. By him stating that everygroup and the community has religion, he meant that every group has aparticular framework that its members have in common so that theymake sense out of life and guide behavior.

Oneof the definitions that are given by Geertz(2002) is that religion isa system of a symbol. Symbols can be can be anything ranging frompictures, events, objects, actions, relationship or anything else.Thus for people with different religion, they tend to have differentsymbols. There are some that find their symbol being sacred and willnot want anyone or anything to interfere with it. These symbols tendto have meaning that conveys a message about the religion. The symbolis used to teach and help those using it to be able to understand thereligion in a particular manner. At the same time, the religion iswhat is used to bring out the real meaning of that religion and alsodistinguish it from other faiths. These symbols are used to informpeople that they should or are supposed to live in a particularmanner because the world moves in a certain way.

Hisother definition Geertz states that religion is a Religion is asystem of full of symbolism that acts to establish moods andmotivations that are substantial, pervasive and long-lasting (Geertz2002, 90). Moods are the manner at which people feel and respond tothe world. Motives are the things that people aspire, and values arethe things that are held. Ccombined the three elements can be used tomake either our lives or ethos. The reality of life is that people ofreligion or faith have to have feelings in a particular manner andaim to keep values up absolute values. The effect of symbols used inreligion.

Hisother definition is that religion is used to formulate the concept ofhaving a general order of existence. Religion is there so that it canpersuade us that there is the connection between nature and our dailylives. The religion aims to reassure us that there is meaningfulorder in the manner at which we live rather than having chaos in ourlives. In most cases, this is taken for granted. However, every oneof us tends to have a moment of crises where the world does not seemto make any point. Religion helps those who are undergoing adifficult situation that it is something that is passing by and willbe over soon. Religion is used to cloth its conception of order witha factuality of order. If you are having a symbol of faith with you,you will be able to endure crises. To face the challenges that lifethrows, it is important that you view the symbol as a description ofsomething that is permanent in reality. So as to reinforce suchbelief, every religion has rituals that they perform. According toGeertz ( 2002), a ritual is a way that is used to act out anindividual symbol . On the same note, a routine is also used to showthe believers that it is possible to a certain reality according toits group behavior.

Spirodefines religion as ‘institution consisting of culturally patternedinteraction with culturally postulated superhuman beings.” (Spiro1966, 92) He concurs with Durkheim that there is no faith without adenomination and faith has some methodological status of othercultures. Religion enables interaction between people andsuperhuman, enabling people to behave in way desire to gain favor orprotection from the super beings. The concept of Supreme being havetheir root in society, this does not mean that for bearer of thatfaith that society is God or God is a mere symbol of society. Thepractice of this faith is instigated by desire to satisfy a need ofthe supernatural being( Spiro, 1966). This allows society to beattached to one religion or another. He further stated that one canprimarily be introduced in a religion as a child or as result of needto worship or gain a favor. Thus, it rather not functionalrequirement that evokes worshiping, but motivationaldesire(Spiro1966). People use religions as a tool through which theyidentify themselves and be expressed with. As Christian areidentifying themselves with Christ, so do Muslim associate themselveswith Allah. Religion has persisted to exist because of generationalassociation with religion and Faith or believes that are associatedwith religion. Spiro and Geertz have significantly contributed to theway people perceive religion, they have brought various views of howdifferent cultures perceive religion and their own perspective on thematter. Modern societies define religion based on some of theirarguments.


Catlin,George G. E. (2014), Introduction,in Durkheim`s The Rules of Sociological Method,

translatedfrom the French by S.S. Solo way and J.H. Mueller and edited byGeorge E. G. Catlin,

NewYork, London: The Free Press.

Dilthey,Wilhelm. (2008), Introductionto the Human Sciences, an Introduction to Lay a

Foundationfor the Study of Society and History,Detroit: Wayne State University Press.

DurkheimEmile. “the Elementary Forms of Religious life” In aReader in the Anthropology Of

Religion.Ed, Michael Lambek. Malden, MA Blackwell Publishing 2002,34-49

Elwell,Frank W. (2014). IndustrializingAmerica: Understanding Contemporary Society

throughClassical Sociological Analysis.West Port, Connecticut: Praeger

.Geertz,Clifford.&nbspTheInterpretation of Cultures: Selected Essays.New York, NY: Basic Books,


Johnstone,Ronald L. “A sociological perspective” Religionin Society A Society in Religion,6th

dSaddle river ,NJ , Prentice Hall,2001,1-19.

Münch,Richard. (2008) UnderstandingModernity: Toward a New Perspective Going beyond

Durkheimand Weber,New York: Routledge.

Pals,Dananeel L. “Karl Marx-Religion as A gent of Economic Oppression”Introducing Religion

Readingfrom Classic Theories . Ed, Dancell Pals .New York USA: OxfordUniversity press 2008

Snyder,Jack L.&nbspReligionand International Relations Theory.New York: Columbia University

Press,2011. Print.

Spiro,Melfrod. E .”religion: Problem of Definition and explanation.” InAnthropology

Approachesto the Study o fReligion. EdMichael banton. London Tavistock, 1966 85-126

Weber,Max “The Protestant Ethic and Spirit Of Capitalism” AReader in the Anthropology of religion.Ed Michael Lambek . Malden, MA Blackwell publishing,2002/34-4s

Weber,Max. (2006)), Economyand Society: an Outline of Interpretative Sociology,edited by G. Roth and C. Wittick, translators