and Noteworthy Aspects in the Diary ‘Memories and Impression of Warand Revolution of Russia 1914-1917’
and Noteworthy Aspects in the Diary ‘Memories and Impression of Warand Revolution of Russia 1914-1917’
Thediary "memories and impression of war and revolution in Russia1914-1917" is an explanation of what happened during the warthat lasted for three years in Russia from 1914 to 1917 written byGourko Basil who was a commanding officer. The author uses hispersonal descriptive capability to explain vividly on what happenedduring the war and revolution that took place in Russia. Accordingthe author, they had received information from the reconnectingpatrols that the German troops had started taking position in a townthat was just sixteen kilometers from where they were taking theirposition. The same information had reached the general staff . Thusthe author received orders from the General Rennenkampf to makecrucial steps such as scouting, or fighting to show his commitmentand this issue (Graf, 2004). As a result, the author who in this casewas the commanding officer makes the decision of engaging his 5thrifle and cavalry divisions that were at his disposal to demonstratehis advances in the force to outshine the Germany troops.Consequently, he went ahead to fronted his troops between twenty-fiveand thirty kilometers using Calvary columns and infantry column. Theplan of the commanding officer was to use the cavalry columns in theNorth of the town, and the other column was direct towards the town.The calculations that were made by the commanding officer was thatthe cavalry column must reach the enemy (Germany troops) few hoursthan the other column.
Consequently,there was an appearance, in this case, the railway line that was usedgave surety that there is no fail. As a result, after some time theGermans were forced to request for reinforcement outside theMarggrabowa throughout the railway line to reach the cavalry column.The author affirms that the strength of his scouts reinforced weakenthe German troops making it easy to for the infantry column to easilyaccess the town thus, capturing the German troops and the entiretown. The entire diary shows a infantry column that is composed ofregiment and committed in its operations and acts as the fieldbattery and worked very closely with the Colonel who was commandingin the Russian division when in Salonika. Moreover, the Infantrycolumn performed very difficult operations that created the firstengagement in the rifle regiments the author of the diary was partof the infantry column that acted as the main force in the war andrevolution in Russia.
of the Diary Content
Thediary composes of twenty-nine chapters that explain the entire periodof the war that last for three years in Russia and how the Russianarmy was mobilized during the war era. The first chapter of the diaryexplains the first fighting operations that were carried out by theRussian army against the German troops. Secondly, we get to know howthe how the army occupied the East of Prussia and the Cavalry andInfantry columns operations that followed during the characteristicincidences that occurred. On the other hand, the author of the diarygoes ahead to give vivid information of the how the two columnsdashed through the German line and defeated them through a plan thatwas well planned by the commanding officer. This happened during thebattle of the Tannenberg, the fight in Poland and Galicia (page 85).However, at some point in the war, the Russian armies were defeatedwhich formed the start point of the trench warfare and the munitionsof the war (Neilson,2014).Consequently, summer campaign was initiated to recruit to enforce theRussian armies however, most of the Russian population took flightto other countries mostly to care for the wounded armies.
Onthe other hand, chapter fourteen of the diary explains the summerfighting that occurred in 1916. Additionally, the author explains thedestructions and entry of the Roumania that occurred in the generalheadquarters it was during this time that the author, Gourko, wasappointed as the chief of staff (page 199). He started a new life inthe general headquarters and learned new strategies of facing theenemies. However, the political situation in Russian in 1916 was notstable because of the fight that has lasted for two consecutiveyears. For example, a fight was been experienced in Roumania and itssurroundings making the political stability be wanting. Moreover,most of the Russians were facing various problems such as poortransport especially in the Free Poland where the railway lines werenot operational because of the wars. Lastly, Gourko explains howRasputin was murdered during the preparations of the offensive in1917. This was the birth of revolution in Russia the first effect ofrevolution was felt in 1917. Consequently, other measures such asre-organization of the Russian army, the holding of peacedemonstration and conference meetings were held through the mandateof the commander-in-chief who was in Petrograd. However, Gourko wasin the conflict with the government because it was againstre-organization of the Russian army. During this time, the Cossack’sAtaman was elected as the new commander and the author arrested, andthe leaders in the department of England were confined in thefortress. This was the begging of revolution and healing of war thatoccur in Russian from 1914 to 1917.
Noteworthyaspects of the diary
Fromthe diary, there are a number of things that the reader can learn thehistory of the war that is explained by the author so well and withclarity. Consequently, after reading through the diary, I havelearned a number of noteworthy issues that are beneficial to allhistory student studying the history of the first world war. Firstly,I have learned that effective planning is crucial when facing anyenemy. The commanding officers and the commander-in-chief explainedin the dairy planned well before engaging in a fight with the Germantroops. A good example is Gourko (1918), who was first tested on theability to plan effectively by the commandant of his time.Additionally, democracy and the rights of the people should beexercised to win the political aspects in a nation. In the dairy wesee several generals and commandants been appointed in a democraticmanner for example, General Ivanoff and Gourko were appointed toacts as commander-in-chief in the frontier army group. All thecommandants explained in the diary were committed in theirresponsibilities as they led the army, groups. Additionally, thecommander-in-chief such as Alexeieff and Gourko were very famousthroughout the globe, and they acted as the chief of the army stafffor the whole empire. On the other hand, the leaders of the armyportrayed unique features that were typical of the men who weremodest, worked with humility for the people, and embraced wisdom whenplanning for the Russian fight.
Moreover,a good number of the generals and the commandants showed specialqualities such as such as kindness, good nature, sound mind andeffective decision making, evenness of temper, easy accessibility bytheir juniors, and paramount modesty that was combined with theiradequate skills and punctilious learning in the affairs that concernmilitary operations. For example, Gourko spent most of his time toserve the officers he was commanding and fought for their rightsleading to his arrest. Moreover, he planned for the fight andorganized the two columns when he received the information that theGerman troops were taking their position just sixteen kilometers fromwhere he was camping with his team.
Asa history student, I have learned that officers leading the armyshould be humble, dedicated, and good planners to be successful inthe fights before them. Additionally, I have realized that frequentcampaigns are crucial and aid in the planning of a fight that bringshonors after winning a given order. Moreover, the Author, Mr. Gourko,and other commanding officers such as General Ivanoff were notexperienced enough in planning for fights but did not retreat fromthe duties assigned to them (Stockdale,2004).This measure was very important in their lives because they gainedvaries, extensive, and wide experience. However, their success isevidenced by the fact that they were able to control the armies theywere leading. Additionally, they were fully reproached by the factthat they were influenced by their staff and chief of the commandingcolumn. Consequently, the commanding and the general officers werewilling to serve their nation and exercise their talents in fightingthe enemies without fear or favor. Here, I learn the importance ofloyalty as a citizen of my country.
Lastly,the author shows characters of the commanding officers with a lot ofreservation the characters explained by the author in his diary areof the first class or order. This is because, despite the highestpositions that were held by the commanding officers, most of themespecially the author himself portrayed a lot of simplicities,modesty, and accessibility when commanding and training the armies.As a result, we see most of the making direct deals with thecommanding officers, especially when fighting against the Germantroops (Strachan,2014).However, in spite of the easy to access character on the leaders, itwas difficult to reproach the commanding officers using anexceptional softness. This is because the officers took crucialmeasures to bring every decision made on board. Consequently, I canlearn that very sun has its own spots and that as a leader in theArmy one should be easy to approach and work towards making the rightdecisions a leader is the servant to those who are below him.
Graf,D. W. (2004). Military Rule Behind the Russian Front, 1914—1917:The Political Ramifications. Jahrbücherfür Geschichte Osteuropas,390-411.
Gurko,V. I. (1918). Memories& impressions of war and revolution in Russia, 1914-1917.J. Murray.
Neilson,K. (2014). Strategyand Supply (RLE The First World War): The Anglo-Russian Alliance1914-1917.Routledge.
Stockdale,M. K. (2004). " My Death for the Motherland Is Happiness":Women, Patriotism, and Soldiering in Russia`s Great War, 1914-1917.TheAmerican Historical Review,109(1),78-116.
Strachan,H. (2014). TheOxford Illustrated History of the First World War: New Edition.Oxford University Press.