Theory-DrivenCase Study Analysis
Theory-DrivenCase Study Analysis
StephenWalker directed [email protected], a 2008 British documentary [email protected] main focus is the New English chorus comprising of seniorcitizens singing classic and contemporary pop and rock songs. Thefilm documents a true story of the Northampton, MA, Young at HeartChorus group with an average age of 81, and most of them having toovercome health adversities for participation. Their music beatsexpectations considering they went against their age groupstereotype, to perform songs such as Sonic Youth, James Brown, ColdPlay and The Clash. Ultimately, American Occupational TherapyAssociation (2008) noted that the group possesses the “show must goon” kind of mentality. The paper therefore, will carry out casestudy analysis of the [email protected] chorus group by choosing anoccupational therapy-related theory for the analysis of the casestudy.
Forthe [email protected] case study analysis, the occupational therapy-relatedtheory presented for this paper is the social cognitive theory.Social cognitive theory (SCT) is often applied in education,communication, and psychology, which according to Pavlicevic (2003),holds that specific portion of a person’s knowledge acquisitiondirectly related to observing and interacting with other peoplewithin the context of experiences, outside individual influences, andsocial interactions. The theory emphasizes that when people paysattention to a model performing behavior and consequences of events,they tend to use this information to direct subsequent behaviors(Pavlicevic, 2003). To observe a model may also prompt viewers totake part in behavior already learned.
Individualsin other word do not experience new behaviors only by attempting themand either succeeds or fails, but rather, humanity survival isdependent upon replication of other people’s actions. Dependent onwhether individuals are punished or rewarded for their behavioralactions and their behavioral actions, the observer may decide tochoose a replicated behavioral model. Individuals in a group modelprovide a model for a wide array of a larger population in numerousother environmental settings (American Occupational TherapyAssociation, 2008).
[email protected] chorus group is comprised of an older age group that hasembraced a younger-generation-choice of music. Based on socialcognitive theory, this learning theory is based on the idea thatindividuals ([email protected]) learn and try by observing other people.Their learning behavior is centered on their own adopted personality.According to American Occupational Therapy Association (2008), whilesocial psychologists are in agreement that the environment where onegrows in greatly contributes to a person’s behavior, which isequally as important. People are a group learns by observing andintegrating with what is in the environment, cognition, and behavior,which end up influencing their development and relationship.
Forinstance, Pavlicevic (2003) noted that every behavior that iswitnessed may change a person’s thoughts (cognition). What issimilar is the environment that one grows up in, and when based [email protected] chorus group, those embracing a different genre of musicmeant that the environment they were in influenced they innerbehavior. Social Cognitive theory is involved with a knowledgeacquisition process or a direct learning correlation to models’observation. These models can be of those media sources orinterpersonal imitation (American Occupational Therapy Association,2008). Modeling effectiveness teaches one the strategies and generalrules when handling different situations.
[email protected] Chorus’ Information for the Case Analysis
Basedon the Social Cognitive theory as part of the larger occupationaltherapy-related theory, [email protected] Chorus activities are bestexplained and illustrated by people learning from others. Walker &George (2009) constructed a number of experiments based on SocialCognitive theory. The first experiment was based on exposure toeither non-aggressive or aggressive model of both children and adultsof ages between 6-12 and 70-81 years respectively. The latter can becompared with the [email protected] Chorus group in which despite of theiraverage of 81 years, they were able to find a common ground toshowcase their ability to connect with other people.
Theexposure, based on the theory, may involve the [email protected] Chorusgroup engaging in aggressive models, which is played in an aggressivemanner, while the younger group may be involved with a non-aggressivemodel. Observations to these theoretical models, according to Ronen &Freeman (2007), could be based on the need for attention. [email protected] Chorus are a group of older generation, in which out ofsocial contact with the younger generation, adopted their socialbehavioral model, which can be translated to mean attention. Thismeans that when listeners of music for example, selectively paysattention to a specific age group, for instance the [email protected] group instead of other groups, it means that a social behavioris dependent on relevance, accessibility, functional value,behavioral complexity (Pavlicevic, 2003). Or rather some observersmay attribute it to cognitive ability, preconceptions, andpreferential value.
[email protected] group are basically tasked with a lot of activities, but theirmain one is singing. Other activities are undertaking field trips,bible studies, banquets/dinners, and widow/widower fellowships. Theseactivities, according to Allen (2008), elicit a certain behavioralfeel from the public whenever the group are performing and thusdevelops a kind of retention created by the group. This retention,which is able to be an observer of subsequent consequences andbehavior, is converted to be a form of symbol observed to be used forfuture references. The [email protected] Chorus group created a positivebehavior among the people when they choose to sing songs of thecurrent generation irrespective of their advanced age. Allen (2008)enthused that when a positive behavior is revealed, a positivereinforcement in activities follows.
[email protected] Chorus group activities involve production. This is whena symbolic representation of the initial behavior of the group istranslated into commands and actions through reproduction of thebehavior observed from the public towards their activities, theytherefore are viewed in an appropriate context. [email protected] groupwere able to apply a social cognitive theory when during theproduction of their activities, they were able to receive feedbackfrom the public and thus were able to adjust their musicalrepresentation to suit the current and future references (Pavlicevic,2003). Additionally, motivational process describes when behavioralactions are a characteristic of the group’s reenaction ofdependence on responses or consequences received by the observers.
Socialcognitive theory models are not only limited to live demonstrationsfrom the public, but also with verbal behavior as indirect modelingforms. This modelling theory is applied based on the [email protected] group, which has allowed them to learn certain behavior thatshould be repeated when during their singing concerts consideringwhen other people are looking at them during their performance theycould be able to elicit a positive reaction from the people. Inaddition, [email protected] Chorus group model both their schedule andunderlying curriculum consisting of their virtuous activities. Ronen& Freeman (2007) caution that such groups should be dedicatedenough, while building their self-efficacy level and the recognitionof their accomplishments.
Outcomeexpectancies and self-efficacy are some of the features recognizablein the chosen theory. Social cognitive theory refers to activitiesthat are most likely happen when there is close identificationbetween, in this case the audience and the model ([email protected]), andespecially when the audience has an irresistible deal of outcome andself-efficacy (Walker & George, 2009). From the film, it isevident that their ability to perform contemporary rock and pop songsmeans that they have the self-believe. Their self-belief can betranslated to self-efficacy, which means that each individual in [email protected] group is able to believe in him or herself, whether theyhave mastered their talents or not.
Self-efficacy,according to Beck et al. (2004), is the main feature of the theorywhich best describes the group’s activities as far as music isconcerned. It beliefs the group functions to be an important proximaldeterminant sets of human motivations, action, and effect which aimsat conducting operations on cognitive, motivational, and cognitiveintervention activities of the group. The self-efficacy of [email protected] group revolves around their belief to plan and executetheir activities through a prospective situation. The group’s tasksand goals to entertain with the kind of music not associated withtheir group’s age are approached. The [email protected] Chorus group hasa high self-efficacy, and is able to master the challenges that cometheir way.
[email protected] case analysis is best explained through a number of ways thatbest describe their day-today member participation. My analysis helpsby showcasing how the group has improved their activities throughmastery of experience. My analysis revolves around how the group hasaided themselves, despite their age group, in achieving initially thesimple activities to more elaborate and complex ones. Through myanalysis, emotional states and improvement of their physical statesare best explained since it ensures they are well-rested and relaxedbefore they attempt a different activity. For instance, the group maybecome more active, effortful, and pays attention to a highlymotivated with believe that they have mastered a specific task.
Mtanalysis of the group based on social cognitive theory isbest-explained through the participation of the [email protected] Chorus inactivities that result in a specific identification of the group,their sole focus in regard to choosing songs associated with adifferent niche and age group. According to Walker & George(2009), identification allowed [email protected] Chorus to experience aone-on-one correspondence with the theoretical model, whicheventually leads to having a higher chance on a modelled action. Myanalysis also focuses on the observers of this Chorus group. Theobservers are more likely to contribute to the behaviors, which havebeen modeled by a different person, but can identify with. Based onmy analysis, the theory is a representation of emotional attachmentsor commonalities, which are perceived between the model and theobserver.
[email protected] Chorus is considered celebrities. There are ways that myanalysis can explain how this group can participate in variousactivities, which can improve their lives. For instance, theircelebrity status based on the Social Cognitive theory is used by thegroup to fend for themselves through introduction and endorsement ofnumerous products. The groups apply the theory to a certaindemographics, which in one way or the other encompasses all thedomains. In Ronen & Freeman’s (2007), he found out that a groupwith a certain age group, for example that of the [email protected] Chorus,ensures any campaign to endorse a product is successful. Additionally, this is possible since the group is recognized withother peers, and thus has a greater self-efficacy sense which helpsthem in imitating their actions.
Comingfrom my theory-based case analysis, and as an occupational therapistassistant, changes that I could recommend to assist the [email protected] to realize their needs include cultivating andindividual-based development, with moral competence based on thegrowth of sensory-cognitive processes. Simply put, Pavlicevic (2003)noted that to simply put it, to be aware of what is happening aroundus, what is right, and what is wrong, the group can be made toappreciate moral performances, which is influenced by possiblerewards. As the occupational therapist assistant, the group can meettheir needs through the group developing a moral competence.
Asan occupational therapist assistant, to increase member participationin [email protected] Chorus requires a reach out to the individual members.Through Social Cognitive theory, the model demands a social behavior,which is acceptable as a far as people are involved. When there is adrop is performance participation, or when one member of the grouplags behind. Getting in touch with each member creates closeness andresponsibility. To encourage member’s participation means placingmore responsibility to each member. The Chorus group should be a teamto cultivate a sense of responsibility, and I being an occupationaltherapist, it means building up a team, and when they are notassigned a task, Beck et al. (2004), meeting every group memberensures they feel connected.
Culturally sensitive and client-centered issues for the [email protected] as related to their rehearsals could be best addressed throughinterventions such as a focus, which easily adapts with theenvironment they are in, are able to connect with people they relatewith, and working on their skills. My work will be focus on theidentification and elimination of environmental barriers independentto participation of their daily activities (American OccupationalTherapy Association, 2008). In addition, my work as an occupationaltherapist assistant will focus on the group’s client-centeredactivities, which places emphasis on their progress towards achievingthe group’s objectives and goals.
Client-centeredand Culturally Sensitive Issues
Inrelation to the group’s performances, culturally sensitive andclient-centered issues as an occupational assistant are bestaddressed when their musical environment are focused on modifyingtheir tasks, nurturing their skills, and continuing to learn inhandling their daily activities (Allen, 2008). To address thesituation, I would ensure the group only focuses on activities thatare meaningful to all the clients. Since as a therapist, we workclosely with other professionals to ensure that they use therapeutictechniques, which molds various group compliance to activitiesrelated to their niche.
Someof the lessons learnt in the [email protected] Chorus case study, which canbe applied in future Occupational Therapy clients. The lessonsinclude the need to place a target between solving behavioral andcognitive problems, which should use full integration of strategies.Changes in strategies should draw insights that a group such [email protected] Chorus should work towards creating their interventionsto meet their potential and solve problems such as changes inmotivation and struggles to stay as a group as a result of behavioralchanges.
Allen,B. (2008). Foreveryoung at heart: The earlier years.Northampton, MA: Wildrose Productions.
AmericanOccupational Therapy Association. (2008). Occupationaltherapy practice: Domain & process.Bethesda, MD: American Occupational Therapy Association.
Beck,A. T., Freeman, A., & Davis, D. D. (2004). Cognitivetherapy of personality disorders.New York: Guilford Press.
Pavlicevic,M. (2003). Groupsin music: Strategies from music therapy.London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
Ronen,T., & Freeman, A. (2007). Cognitivebehavior therapy in clinical social work practice.New York: Springer Pub. Co.
Walker,S., & George, S. (2009). Young[at] heart.Amsterdam: Homescreen.