Type 2 Diabetes


Type2 Diabetes

Section1: A description of Type2 Diabetes

Type2 Diabetes is a chronic illness that affects the way that sugar isnormally metabolized by the body (Thomas, 2013). The body contains ahormone called insulin, which is responsible for the movement ofsugar in the cells. This type of diabetes resists the effect orinhibits the production of enough insulin in the body (Thomas, 2013).The body contains a hormone called insulin, which is responsible forthe movement of sugar in the cells. And so, this type of diabetes mayresist the effect or inhibit the production of enough insulin in thebody (Ekoe &amp Rewers, 2008). When it does that, the normal glucoselevel is affected in the body. is predominantlycommon in adults, hence the name adult-onset diabetes (Thomas, 2013).


Anyoneinfected with diabetes 2 may show the following signs frequentthirst and urination, increased hunger, weight loss, fatigue, blurredvision, slow healing sores, frequent infections and one may have somedarkened areas on the skin (Thomas, 2013). It is important to notethat it may take long periods for one to find out that he has thiscondition as the disease builds over time.

Theetiology of Type2 Diabetes

Thetwo major factors that trigger the occurrence of diabetes areenvironmental and genetic factors (Rios, 2010). Environmental factorsare composed of unhealthy excess body weight, especially around thewaist and low activity levels. Diabetes 2 is genetically transmittedfrom a parent to child. This means that it is hereditary in a familythat has a history of its existence. Diabetes occurs when the bodystops recognizing insulin and develops resistance towards it. Thepancreas may also be producing insulin that is insufficient to thebody needs.

Theprognosis of Type2 Diabetes

Unfortunately,there is no cure for this illness. However, one may be able tomaintain this condition and lead a normal life when he acquires Type2 Diabetes (Thomas, 2013). This is achieved through much emphasis onexercise, right diet, and most importantly maintaining the right bodyweight. Diet is mainly composed of high intake of complexcarbohydrates and fiber and reduced consumption of simplecarbohydrates and fats (Rios, 2010). This is aimed at reducing andrestricting high calorie intake. An exercise help in combating therestrictions to the functions of insulin, helps burn excess glucoseand also helps to reduce any stress in the body (AmericanFamily Physician,2015). When these actions of diet and exercise seem to be futile inregulating the blood sugar, one is expected to start insulin relatedtherapy and type 2 diabetes medications.

ThePopulation health concern

Type2 Diabetes poses a population health concern by presenting a wantingprevalence rates. According to the National Diabetes StatisticsReport of 2014, people diagnosed with in 2012 in theUnited States were reported to be 29.1 million (American DiabetesAssociation, 2014). This was about 9.3% of the total population then.A prevalence rate was seen to be higher for the senior citizens atabout 11.8 million people or 29.9%. This category composed ofcitizens who were 65 years old or older (American DiabetesAssociation, 2014). New population cases with this condition wereestimated to be 1.7million people in 2012 (American DiabetesAssociation, 2014). According to the report, Diabetes continues to bethe seventh leading killer disease in the United States.

(AmericanDiabetes Association, 2014)

Theother aspect of population health concern is behavioral risk factorsand indicators of concern for the disease. One of the risk factorsassociated with as is race. According to the NationalDiabetes Statistics Report of 2014, American Indians and AlaskanNatives had a higher prevalence rate of 15.9% with non-Hispanicwhites having the least prevalence (American Diabetes Association,2014). This shows that race is a risk factor, despite being not acause.

Otherrisk factors are family history of , obesity, an ageof 45, history of hypertension and high cholesterol levels, gestationdiabetes mellitus history, or babies born weighing over 4.032g(American Diabetes Association, 2014). All these are importantindicators to look out for. Patients having this condition will haveto undergo at least three types of therapy drugs (American DiabetesAssociation, 2013).

Section2: Components of Treatment

Becauseof age, it is impossible to have a standardized treatment plan (Rios,2010). This is because the level at which the body tends to resistinsulin tends to increase with age. The pancreas usually is underpressure to keep up with the extra insulin needs, forcing the insulinproducing cells in the body may wear out. This makes the medicationof keeping a stable blood sugar in the body to increase over theyears.

ParticularResearch and Findings

Aresearch was conducted by the American Diabetes Association on asample population of the elderly and pregnant mothers with diabetesand a population of younger people. The study revealed that earlydetection is important as it reduces the clinical and health burdensthat come with the disease (American Diabetes Association,2003).But because has a long pre-symptomatic phase, it wasrecommended that individual at the age of 45 should begin testing(American Diabetes Association,2003).Further testing should be conducted over a period of every 3years.

Theyresearch advocated that diagnosis of particular diabetes cannot bemade based on the circumstances present in an individual. Rather, thedisease progression should be examined over time as both types ofdiseases differ over time (American Diabetes Association,2003).They dismissed the traditional paradigms of the . Thatit only occurs in adult individuals. It further recommended thattesting should be done in the same health care centre to ensure thatthere is follow up. This exercise is meant to reduce the risks ofhaving the disease and having no knowledge of its existence (AmericanDiabetes Association,2003).Results that had been negative earlier might be confirmed to bepositive. This will ensure that early treatment is commenced.

Opportunitiesfor Prevention

Itis however important to note that lifestyle changes are an essentialfactor for people having this condition. This is because themanagement of this condition depends on how well one adjusts theirlifestyle to suiting the body needs (Ekoe &amp Rewers, 2008). Therehave been cases of immature deaths caused by kidney, strokes andheart related diseases. This condition has been known to be acontributing factor to blindness, amputation, strokes, heart attackand kidney failure (Thomas, 2013).

Costsand treatment

Thetotal estimated costs for people who were diagnosed with thiscondition was estimated to be $245 billion. This includes all thedirect costs associated with medical treatment and a total of $69 inreduced productivity (American Diabetes Association, 2013). Thisdemonstrates the seriousness of this condition.

Componentsof service coordination

Fordiabetes, the service coordination is important because it is achronic disease that requires two aspects of treatment andmanagement continuous medical care and patient self-management.Therefore, the first service involved hospitals and healthinstitutions to offer medical interventions that will help manageinsulin levels (American Diabetes Association,2003).The other service needed is education to equip the patient to managethe disease and avoid any acute complications. According to theAmerican Diabetes Association(2003), coordinatingbetween the two components of service support to the patient helps inpreventing the occurrence of long-term complications and healthrisks.

Section3: Population Health Recommendations

Insightinto marketing and communication

Marketingand communication associations should be keen to incorporate healthinformation into their communication in regard to type 2 diabetes.For instance, New York launched a graphic campaign targetingdiabetics, to fight obesity, a risk factor (WellBing Wire, 2015). Furthermarketing can also be done by corporate aligning the message of everyproduct being marketed to the health precautions set forth to reducethe risk factors for the disease (Haga, 2009). For instance, themarketing of products should indicate the sugar levels of eachproduct through a properly communicated label.


Federaland state governments should fund programs to control this diseasethrough the creation of social awareness programs. Governments shouldfund programs like National Diabetes Prevention Program (NDPP)(Knickman &amp Hunt, 2015). Through funding, such organizations willbe able to carry out activities like screening people and educatingthem. The National Diabetes Prevention Program emphasizes thisparticularly to people who are obese and have risk factors mentionedearlier that could indicate this condition (Knickman &amp Hunt,2015). It has further encouraged community education programs thataim to create public awareness of this disease in workshops. This hasled to the creation of lifestyle change participation programs thataims to mitigate the effects of . Employee healthsurvey should also be employed by companies that consider Type 2Diabetes a threat to their productivity.


Asignificant ethical dimension about relatescommunication of the risk to the patient. During diagnosis, thehealth practitioner, the physician or the medical professional shouldcommunicate the risk factors in a dignified way (Haga, 2009). Forinstance, when requesting for racial and ethnic information, themedical professional should not use the information as the basis ofhis diagnosis and recommendations for further testing. It is a factthat race is one of the risk factors for the disease, but should becommunicated professionally.


Oneof the most successful programs is mass screening. The United Kingdomhas successfully implemented mass screening for Diabetes and offerededucation to patients and supported innovative exercise programs tokeep people healthy (PulseToday, 2015). Theother successful educational model against diabetes is the communityhealth training and awareness. To combat , the publicshould be well educated about the condition, and equipped with theinformation about the risk factors. This is carried by nationalorganizations and non-governmental organizations (Knickman &ampHunt, 2015). Through the volunteer program, the teaching of thepopulation about proper health habits and nutrition has facilitatedthe fight against the health condition.


AmericanDiabetes Association(2003). Standards of Medical Care for Patients With DiabetesMellitus. DiabetesCareJanuary 2003 vol.26 (1),33-50

AmericanDiabetes Association (2014). StatisticsAbout Diabetes.RetrievedFrom &lthttp://www.diabetes.org/diabetes-basics/statistics&gt 10,October, 2015

AmericanDiabetes Association. (2015). TheCost of Diabetes.Retrieved From&lthttp://www.diabetes.org/advocacy/news-events/cost-of-diabetes.html&gt10, October, 2015

AmericanFamily Physician. (2015). Treatmentof Mellitus.Retrieved from &lthttp://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0515/p2835.html&gt10, October, 2015

EkoeM, Rewers M (2008). Theepidemiology of Diabetes Mellitus. WestSussex. John Wiley and Sons Limited

Haga,S. (2009). Ethical Issues of Predictive Genetic Testing for Diabetes,Journalof Diabetes Science Technology, 2009Jul 3(4): 781–788

Knickman,J., &amp Hunt, K. (2015). GoodAnd Bad News For Diabetes Prevention In The Community,Retrievedfrom&lthttp://healthaffairs.org/blog/2015/03/25/good-and-bad-news-for-diabetes-prevention-in-the-community&gt10, October, 2015

Rios,S. (2010). Type2 Diabetes Mellitus.Barcelona: Elsevier Espana Publishers.

Thomas,M. (2013). Understanding. NewZealand. Exisle Publishing Pty Limited.

PulseToday, 2015. Screeningthe masses: GPs set for contractual incentives to measure diabetesrisk. Retrievedfrom&lthttp://www.pulsetoday.co.uk/clinical/more-clinical-areas/diabetes/screening-the-masses-gps-set-for-contractual-incentives-to-measure-diabetes-risk/20009631.article&gt10, October, 2015

WellBing Wire, 2015, New YorkCity Launches Graphic Anti-Obesity Ad Campaign Targeting Diabetics,Retrieved from&lthttp://wellbeingwire.meyouhealth.com/uncategorized/new-york-city-launches-graphic-anti-obesity-ad-campaign-targeting-diabetics/&gt10, October, 2015